I know that on the east coast, a couple of the park services have been pushing the climbing community to install bolt anchors as a replacement for nests of old slings around trees. This is in part because slinging anchors around trees can damage the bark, and sometimes eventually kill the tree. This shift from webbing anchors around trees to bolted rappel anchors is happening / has happened at the New River Gorge and at the Gunks. So I'd say that in a broader sense, the park services and the climbing community are aware of the problem, and are taking steps to address it. At least on the east coast.
From an individual prespective, if you're trying to get back down to the ground safely, I'd say go ahead and rap off a tree. Leaving a sling of some kind, and rapping off a carabiner in the sling, will be more gentle to the tree's bark than just throwing the rope around the tree, rappeling as-is, and then pulling the rope down. One person doing this isn't the problem, it would only become a problem if everybody did it. Just make sure the tree is big enough, and secure on the cliff.
You can also look to get involved with your local Access Fund or other climbing groups that are responsible for bolt replacement. I know that around here, the park service regulates the placement of bolts, but the climbing community has to buy the bolts on its own, usually through contributions from climbers. The climbing community orgs around where I live, at least, hold fundraisers every year, and much of the money goes to bolt replacement and new hardware for rappel stations.
EDIT: I just realized that my original post didn't actually answer the question. No, there's not a consensus. Traditional climbing ethics in the US and Britain (possibly elsewhere) emphasize minimizing the placement of bolts to preserve the original state of the rock. The park services (the real land owners, and final word on ethics) sometimes have different priorities, and are willing to tolerate extra rappel bolts if it means less damage to vegetation. The actual "ethic" for a climbing area is always an agreement between the local climbing community and the landowner.