I have a Columbia 100% PVC rain jacket. It has a nylon lining.
Can PVC material be used as an effective windbreaker? Are there any side effects (such as making me sweat a lot more) that could discourage me from using it as a windbreaker?
A rain jacket is a good windbreaker as well. The main downside, as you pointed out, is that it will not breathe as well as other fabrics.
This shouldn't be an issue as long as you aren't doing a lot of high-output activities (ex: climbing, hiking uphill with a heavy pack for hours). Regular hiking and the likes should be fine.