A little research led from a Finnish blog to the source article, which appears to have been published in the journal Climate Research in 1995. There is another posting comparing early 20th century modern clothing, to that of today, i.e. 2012.
In the 1995 study, they found that for a sedentary individual, such as a passenger on a sled, the traditional caribou and other fur clothing were indeed superior to the modern clothing
The laboratory data support the recommendations of Unit elders to use caribou skin clothing for long-term protection for sedentary individuals exposed to a cold winter climate.
It goes on, however
it is not necessarily better for active users
as this study was looking at stationary people, without the effect of sweat upon the insulative qualities of the garments.
N.B. marked this answer as wiki, as it only starts to answer the several specific questions of the posting.