Sometimes I camp with people who pass out drinking beer and don't bother to clean up their trash before they go to bed. Since we are in black bear country, I was wondering if empty beer bottles can attract black bears.
This answer may depend on the type of bear, but somehow I doubt it.
Don't think about the beer bottles being "food". Think about bears being curious. Anything with a scent can attract a curious bear. Maybe your bear has never smelt an IPA before, and will need to investigate the rich scent of hops.
Take a quick look at the Yosemite National Park page on bear safety.