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32

The short answer is "bear spray"; a firearm is really not the most effective option. That said... I will assume you are looking for grizzly protection, since you didn't specify the bear and black bears are relatively shy. Again, using spray is a far more effective way of improving your odds; a review of its use in Alaska found a 98% success rate, with no ...


14

If you think about it, lighting a kerosene lamp with a flint and steel is essentially the same as lighting a Zippo Lighter. The classic of classic lighters has a flammable-fluid soaked wick that is ignited by a small flint and steel. The only significant difference is that Kerosene has a slightly higher flashpoint than Lighter Fluid (Naphtha). Lighter ...


13

Self-assessment is difficult because your level of consciousness (LOC) may be impaired. Unfortunately, one's own state of mind is also very difficult to self-assess. I'll list here a brief overview of some of the "self-checks" you can do, but (as I'm sure you're already aware), getting a second person to check you out as soon as possible will help ensure you ...


13

Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate). It's naturally occurring, and to get a level of toxicity to animals you would need to get to 450mg per liter. Unless you're operating a mine or using literally tons of the stuff, it's quite safe and you'll never get near that. From a 2008 USGS study: Chronic toxicity was observed at concentrations that ranged from 450 ...


12

Project Remote was started by a scientifically-minded couple to quantitatively determine the most remote locations in each of the 50 states mainly using the distance to the nearest road or town and whether cel phone coverage is available. They've cataloged quite a few states already east of the Mississippi, which you can check out here: Project Remote. The ...


10

I'm very satisfied with my Goalzero Nomad 7, it's small, easy to strap to your backpack, and it fully charges your batteries or anything that charges from USB or even 12V power in as little as 3hrs in good sunlight. There are lots of solar panels to choose from, any one will probably do the job, so shop for one that suits you. What you really need in your ...


9

A magnifying glass will not light it, and I don't think a flint and steel will directly - you need a flame rather than a spark - but that is easily solved through using a piece of newspaper with kindling, or taper. Just use your magnifying glass or flint to light the paper, then use that to light the lamp. Slightly messy, and you need to be careful where ...


9

The optimal skin track angle is a subject of much debate in the backcountry skiing world. There are generally two schools of thought on skin tracks. The steeper the better Slow and steady wins the race Since you used "effective" rather than possible, my 2 cents would be that you should set the steepest skin track that allows you to climb at a ...


9

Even for "multi-week" trips, brushing with water alone is not going to compromise your tooth health. The abrasive action of the brush does most of the work, and missing the flouride hit for a few days won't affect your teeth in the least. Plus, it saves weight. So, the best LNT option: don't use it. If you MUST use toothpaste (or an alternative), try a few ...


5

Most of the "untouched" places left in North America are that way for a reason, no one wants to touch them. There are loads of barren desserts in Nevada, Utah, New Mexico and Arizona that people don't bother going to because it's dead, there's nothing there but heat sand and rocks. The easiest way to figure out what parts of the USA are isolated from ...


5

I wasn't able to light an Aladdin kerosene lamp with the sparks of a zippo. (Kerosene needs much more energy to ignite than lighter fluid) As an ironic side question - do you really need a lamp when there is enough sunlight to ignite it with a magnifying glass? ;-)


4

fire steel can be used but you would be wise to find a tinder i.e. birch bark, Vaseline soaked cotton in a pill bottle.. I would not recommend a kerosine lamp where a candle in a safe enclosure would work just as nice. also practice a bit before your trip as it does take some skill.


4

It's a good idea to carry along some snacks, Fritos, potato chips, doritoes. You can light these with a magnifying glass, if the sun is out. I've had to resort to this to get the wood stove lit when my lighter was out of fluid while snowed in. There is a high fat/grease content in those snacks. They burn like a candle. Try it!


4

Walk the line on a humid very cold still morning. If the hot spring is of any significance -- e.g. enough surface to get in, and enough flow to be hot, -- you should get a plume of steam rising off the water. This will likely require an air water temperature differential of at least 40 degrees F to be visible. I have seen 'steam' (fog) tendrils off of ...


4

Due to the nature of many injuries your awareness and ability to treat yourself may be impaired. Therefore, extra care should be taken. Don't do anything rash or hastily as that will probably just make things worse. Take a few moments to collect yourself and get an initial impression of how you feel. Your first concern is to prevent further injury and get ...


4

The cheapest ways to try cross country skiing are borrowing equipment, yard sale equipment, craigslist, or rentals. If you like it, and rent frequently, that stops being cheap. If you make friends who run or are otherwise active, ask around, and someone might have a spare set of skis and poles they can lend you - you can find them for a few dollars at yard ...


4

You can also use Miswak, then you don't need to cary a tooth paste along but still have medicinal benefits, instead of having to use just a toothbrush with only water (although there is no harm in that either). The miswak (miswaak, siwak, sewak, Arabic: سواك‎ or مسواك) is a teeth cleaning twig made from the Salvadora persica tree (known as arak in ...


3

It helps to know what is going on underground when looking for geological patters. Hot springs are of course geothermally heated by pockets of magma in the crust that are relatively close to the surface. Understanding the underlaying strata and ground water patters are essential to accurately predicting where hydraulic phenomena will appear. At the very ...


3

I haven't seen any particular rules for boots at Philmont. I am aware of a wide range of footwear having been used, ranging from the traditional heavy high-topped boots to lightweight, low-cut trail runners. In general it seems the Philmont trails are well-maintained, and with the exceptions of places like Valle Vidal (off-trail) and Mt. Baldy (plenty of ...


3

There are several aspects to take under consideration: Group holes are not a good practice because your deposits can't be buried too deep. The soil needs enough organic material to eliminate your deposits. But, if the upper layers of the soil are big enough, you could make your hole bigger (so making it appropriate for larger groups). The type of group who ...


3

The answer to your question is: the middle of the Selway-Bitteroot/River-of-No-Return Wildnerness in Idaho. These are actually two wilderness areas joined together (separated by a single dirt road) which together form the largest roadless area and the largest wildnerness in the Continental US. The Selway Bitterroot is where the author of "A River Runs ...


3

I think I've gone straight up 30° on good snow, maybe steeper for short bits. This would be on old Diamir bindings and fairly stiff alpine boots. As Dakatine mentioned, not all snow is equal, powder tends to let the tails drop even further than the actual slope. So loose snow, presence of hard ice are a problem, and of course you'll also want full length ...


3

AlbertaParks.ca is the resource about all parks in Alberta. I find the maps perfectly easy to read myself. If you want to see where all the parks are, just use google maps, it highlights all provincial, National, and even some regional parks in green, and shows you all roads.


2

This is a broad question, so here's a broad answer: The coastal ranges north of SF are heavily forested and have narrow steep valleys.... and hillbillies and marijuana farms. Although as you go inland there is more grass and some of the valleys are very nice when the grass is green and flowers come out. North & east of the Sacramento Valley you have a ...


2

I have found that digging a deep group latrine works far better when taking youth and other folks who are hesitant about the whole "pooping in the woods" idea. I make it one of the task as we set up camp, one group cooks, one group sets up tents, one group get water then digs the latrine. I oversee that the hole is deep enough to accommodate the group for ...


2

If you are desperate, a flint and steel or other sparker can be used to light a kerosene lamp but, and it is a pretty big but, you must first warm the wick (and the kerosene in it) to body temp or slightly above. Holding it in your hands and blowing on it will get you close, but it is almost always easier to ignite some kindling and use that to light your ...


2

The great thing about finding bones outside is that for the most part, they're already clean! I'm from a small hunting town, going out for hikes to look for bones and sheds is a popular thing to do in the spring. I found bear skull on a game trail once, you don't need to do much more than collect them in a garbage bag or a cardboard box, old bones aren't ...


2

I use two cheap solar panels (A5-paper size, folding ones) on bike trips, one without a battery and one with. I have both installed on my bike all day, with my GPS device plugged in to one of them all the time. I travel on roads and in a particular direction, so I can adjust them every two hours or so to face the sun. This keeps the battery on a respectable ...


2

Thanks for your help. I've purchased a Bruce Trail map and found Terra Cotta Conservation Area and Pretty River Valley Provincial Park with a camp spot in adjacent Petun Conservation Area. The latter is 2 hours away, but I think it'll suffice.


2

These boots seem perfectly reasonable to me. If they are comfortable and not about to fall apart I can't see why they should be a problem. I suspect what they mean is that the are not familiar/do not stock that brand of boot so can't recommend it. It would seem crazy to me if they said you can't use perfectly good boots because they aren't on some list. ...



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