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9

You want to leave enough room at the entrance for airflow. If the entrance is totally blocked you could possibly suffocate on the CO2 you breathe out. In addition to the entrance, keep an eye on the air exit at the top so it doesn't get blocked. You can heat the inside significantly with just a candle.


7

Wind chill factors verge on being junk science, especially when interpreted uncritically. However, your physical intuition does make sense, and published formulas and tables do have a property very much like the one you have in mind: as the wind speed increases, the incremental effect of adding a given amount to the wind speed gets smaller and smaller. For ...


7

There's not yet a good answer that asks for the reason the fingers, toes (and nose and ears) are cold, so let me add a few points: (I'm assuming around 0°C according to the question - of course, -40 °C is different). Here are a couple of reasons why your fingers and toes get cold in the first place: Of course, you may not yet be used to the cold ...


7

Different gasses have different boiling points. Under boiling point the gas is liquid and don't have enough pressure to come out from the canister (if used in upright). The boiling points of usual gasses used in (camping) gas stoves are: Propane: −42.25 to −42.04 °C Butane: −1 to 1 °C Iso-butane: −13 to −9 °C source Wikipedia: Propane, butane and ...


6

It's also a good idea when camping in freezing weather to pour some water into your cooking pot before going to sleep so that if it freezes overnight it will freeze in the pot rather than the container. It's a lot easier then to melt the ice in the pot rather than the container when you wake up in the morning and want the water for breakfast or a hot drink!


5

Buy an Overbag. Use the Overbag when it's too warm for your down bag Use the down bag at and around -15C Use the Overbag and Down Bag together when it's colder than -15C AND if you want to get real fancy get a Vapour Barrier Liner and use all three together for expeditions and temps below -30C. You now have all your bases covered! This is much more ...


5

The key to cold weather clothing is viewing it as a system. The base layer of the system wicks moisture from the body and provides a small amount of insulation. The middle layer(s) of the system provide warmth and wind protection. The outer layer provides protection from the elements. That being said, a proven system for the temperature range you're ...


5

You'll want insulate yourself from the ground. If you're on mountain there's a good chance you're on rock, and while it keeps heat from the sun well, once it gets cold it stays cold, and you'll feel it. I recommend a foam pad for the best cost/weight ratio.


4

-20 celsius is not particularly cold, but 3 weeks summer hiking experience is not particularly helpful. You might not kill yourself, but you probably won't thank yourself, either.


4

Cotton is the dominant bedding material choice worldwide for several reasons and as long as you aren't getting into the bag drenched and have adequate water control for your environment, I can't see the lining choice being a make or break factor in warmth. I can see it making the bag much more comfortable for casual use. Furthermore, for winter camping in ...


4

Some of us, when adventuring, go to far off remote places, in very cold or wet areas, and carry everything with us on our backs. But not everyone does that. Some people only car camp, in the summer, where bathrooms and showers are 200 feet away. For those sorts of camping situations, people's needs in a sleeping bag are essentially nothing more than ...


4

One problem with hemp compared to wool is how it conducts heat when it is wet. Wet hemp conducts heat very well when wet which means your feet could get freezing cold. Wet wool is a poor heat conductor so even if wet they will not be as cold.


4

No there is no limit to the math of wind chill, though there is a maximum wind speed that has ever been observed. Here is what wind chill is. Imagine you have a hot cup of coffee. You can leave it at room temperature for a while and it will cool down to where you can drink it. Or, you can put it in the fridge and it will cool faster. Or put it in the ...


4

Unfortunately you are limited in your options: use a mat under you and the sleeping bag as a blanket. This will be a lot colder, though buy another bag, perhaps rated to -5 as an alternative. If you have the carrying capacity, it can be simpler to have a lighter sleeping bag plus blankets, so you can adjust the temperature to suit. Or you could go for a ...


3

Swinging your arms and legs to move blood to your extremities is good advice and will overcome your body's vasoconstriction response, but keep in mind you should also layer up after doing this since you are driving heat energy away from your core. If you are in camp, drinking a hot beverage (and also holding it while you drink) will warm your core and ease ...


3

To answer the sleeping bag question: Snow shelters drip. Constantly. You can deal with some of the drips by placing your ungloved finger on the drip and then moving down to the bottom of the wall. The heat of your finger melts a tiny channel and encourages the drip to follow it. Still, you will get damp, so the best approach is either to have a ...


3

Your understanding of wind-chill is a bit confused. The reason the wind feels colder is because of convective heat transfer. When there is a difference in temperature between two objects, thermal energy transfers from the hot to the cold. In the case of a person in the air, the thermal energy flows into the air, and the faster the air is moving, the more ...


3

In my experience, it generally works fine if I simply use cheap, lightweight water bottles (e.g., a 2-liter soda bottle), and put them inside my pack while I'm hiking. The surrounding material in the pack insulates the bottle from the cold air, and my body heats up the pack, so the water doesn't freeze. If the weather is very cold, I can use extra care in ...


2

Go to your nearest military surplus store and ask if they have any arctic water bottles. These water bottles are made out of aluminum, they are generally round. They are fairly good to hold a lot of water for their size, the water should last about a day or two before we need to be filled (Depending on how much water you drink). They will never freeze. ...


2

Why exactly do you need to carry frozen water? If the temperature is about 0 C, the water will not freeze for a long time anyway. If it is way below 0 C, than you are probably having snow nearby, which you can perfectly use for cooking. You can melt snow during your breakfast, lunch and dinner. If you want to avoid spending time on boiling at lunch, take ...


2

When winter camping I warm up the water on the stove and then keep in my coat--net effect is to warm the body and prevent freezing. I also store some boiled water in a vacuum thermos to save the energy spent on boiling.


2

Among people I've talked to who have tried bivy sacks, none have had anything good to say about them. Tarping is a great way to save weight compared to bringing a tent, but putting up a tarp is time-consuming, requires practice, and is somewhat dependent on your surroundings (e.g., whether there are trees available). Tarps often flap in the wind, which can ...


2

I've tried a few different bivy sacks in all kinds of weather and have always had problems with condensation on the inside, even if they are "breathable". Now I just use a tarp strung to trees and a good foam pad (z-lite) under my sleeping bag, and I add a "bug-bivy" sack in warm weather.


2

British mountaineer Andy Kirkpatrick has quite a bit of useful information regarding how to look after your feet at altitude and in cold conditions on his website at http://www.andy-kirkpatrick.com/articles/view/how_to_avoid_frostbitten_feet. The only recommendation on footwear size he gives with respect to high altitude, is for Neoprene socks. He ...


2

I can't recommend Hempsocks, except you use them as second socks to reduce friction. They're very durable but not comfortable to wear. A good alternative to Merinowool is Bamboo, it's also very smooth and dries very quick. So in short, hemp is good to protect your socks or reduce friction because it's a very cheap and durable material, doesn't cost much - ...


1

and are there other textiles that can work? One option is of course polypropylene, it is hydrophobic (unlike most other materials used in clothing) and has a lower thermal conductivity than wool - this does not mean better insulation, but it is a safe bet it can perform fairly well over natural fibres and is fairly cheap. You may see these as liners to ...


1

You can sit on your hands or cross your arms over your chest, clench a fist, and pump your muscles. Secondly heat up for core muscles (abdomen, chest, thighs). Increasing your core temp will promote better heat circulation. Inturn, gulp down near hot cup of water, eat soup, take a hot bath. Doing so will keep you warm for a good while.


1

I've used Jordan david ice grips called Altragrips-Lite™ LP’s. I can go in and out of the store where I work. The spikes are 1mm studs that don't dig into the floor either. I've used over the years, and if they get wet, these ice grips have fallen off. However if you put some straps on them, the ice grips will not fall off. For more info ...


1

Also, I'd like to add stay out of the wind. The wind will suck away any heat you build up, and unless you have a strong tent, cold air will pour in through the seams. One time we were dumb enough to camp on a mountain bald with no trees to protect us in a steady 40 mph wind and a member of our group was in early stages of hypothermia before we were able to ...



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