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36

Anybody who has severe allergies which could lead to anaphylaxic shock should carry appropriate medication with them. Typically, that would consist of: An antihistamine (e.g. benadryll) An epinephrine auto-injector (aka "Epi-Pen") Benadryll is available over the counter and you should have it in your first aid kit. Epi is by prescription only (at least ...


22

How much sea water can I safely drink? = None If you drink sea water, how much fresh water do you need to drink to off set the sea water you drank? = 2.8 units of distilled water per 1 unit of sea water (to neutralize without adding hydration) The "scientific" answer to this question involves a lot of complex math, human physiology and significant ...


19

If it is clean, fresh snow, it is safe to drink. This is basically drinking rain water. It hasn't had time to pick up pollutants when it is newly fallen. I live in New England, and kids do this all the time. You get taught early to only do this with white snow. Make sure that the snow is actually clean: the longer it sits, and the more urbanized an area is, ...


12

Pee on it. To keep the water drinkable, you'd want to have the liquids separated but still have good thermal transfer between them. A well equipped traveller will pick his/her thermos bottle and a condom, pee in the condom (ladies would probably do it the other way around), tie the condom and put in the bottle, fill the rest with snow, cap, wait and drink. ...


12

The best way to melt snow is to put it in a bottle inside your jacket under your mid layers while you're on the move and let your body heat melt it. Do not place it against the skin, leave a layer or two between you and the bottle. It's advisable to always leave your bottle in your jacket in subzero temperatures, it can freeze if left in your bag. Melting ...


11

From a water purity point of view the same rules apply for drinking water. What is important though is the temperature. If you drink large amounts of snow at a low temperature (i.e. you don't heat it adequately and just drink it as it melts in your hand) then you may need to be careful. Basically if the temperature is low enough and you're ingesting large ...


11

From the WMA emergency medical protocol (WFR's and WEMT's): Urgent evacuation to higher level care is required if fever, swelling, or severe pain is present. Although the pain of dental infection can be extreme, the more critical issues are related to the spread of infection. Patients with more serious infections will show facial swelling and fever. In ...


9

First I will describe the stages of frostbite focusing on how to detect them and what are the implications of each. Secondly I will address handling frostbite. Classification Stages of frostbite are divided into two classes: Damage to the skin (first and second stage) and damage including deeper tissue (nerves, muscles, tendons) (third and fourth stage). ...


8

Pneumonia is not what you have to be worried about in this situation. It is a serious pathologic condition of the lungs commonly (but not exclusively) cause by viral or bacterial infection. Unless you were previously infected it is not likely to catch anything away from civilization. There is a widespread notion of a relation between being cold and catching ...


8

This is a good question, and there are actually some scientific issues to consider. I think morally we can all agree that it would be wrong to kill someone to eat them. But let's consider the situation where you're starving, and someone has just died in front of you due to no fault of your own. Is it "safe" to eat them? Will it benefit you? The first ...


8

Humans actually have a gene which protects them from cannibalism, according to some scientists, a prion disease acquired in prehistoric populations through cannibalism represents a likely explanation of the high prevalence of people with one mutated and one regular prion protein gene, which makes it possible for them to eat their own species without getting ...


8

Stay hydrated. Dehydration prolongs the time it takes to recover from exertion. Eat. Make sure you bring enough and the right kind of food for the trip to adequately fuel your body. Sleep. Make sure you didn't skimp on sleep, just to get that extra early start. Prepare your body. Go on long hikes or runs back to back in the weeks/months leading up to your ...


8

I could not find evidence of an existing test and there is no widely accepting known cause. The only risk factor commonly noted is having been previously affected by AMS. Other mentioned risk factors include: anemia preexisting heart or lung disease However I found one article about a study done by a subgroup of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). ...


7

As already explained in the other questions, the primary concern is possible contamination. For fresh snow and far from civilization this is very easy to identify: White is good: yellow, brown, ... not so :) Close to roads/industry there might be a non-visible contamination but unlikely to be harmful for occasional consumption (at least in countries with ...


7

TL;DR It's very difficult if not impossible. Norovirus is very, very contagious. It can be spread: close contact with someone with norovirus – they may breathe out small particles containing the virus that you could inhale touching contaminated surfaces or objects – the virus can survive outside the body for several days eating ...


6

Here's one study: http://www.eisberg.narod.ru/Ch17-ColdWaterImmersion.pdf And a couple of snippets, the first showing how water cools faster than air. In this test with 10degC water, subject's core temperature was still over 36degC after approx 40 minutes. ...and the second showing effect of different clothing. In this test with 10degC water, subject ...


6

Physically there are two ways for you to heat up the snow: by heat conduction and by heat radiation. Conduction means you place it somewhere close to your body. It does not matter whether this is directly in your mouth or on your belly, you will lose the same amount of energy. The only option to heat it up without losing additional energy is by radiation, ...


6

Your goals should be to: Recuperate as fast as possible and prevent injury Replenish your energy reserves as best you can Rest So stretch and stretch well (even if your exhausted). I recently did a long distance walk and I was too tired to stretch in the evening. Worst decision I've ever made. I woke up after about an hour of sleep, I thought I'd torn my ...


6

Basically people look at the frostbites in 4 principle stages. First Degree Frostbite - Frostnip: Fingers/toes/nose feel very cold, prolonged exposure would numb them. This isn't deep in your body, its just the skin. Medically, its just the Stratum Corneum and Stratum Lucidum being affected and not the whole Epidermis. Rubbing hands, fingers, rapid ...


5

I am presuming this is not a hypothetical survival situation and it can be planned for. I used to regularly walked in wet boots for days, often in near (although rarely below) 0 degree temperatures, although pass hopping we could spend most of a day above the snow line with wet boots. A typical week to 10 day trip where I live you will cross a river ...


5

I'd recommend a common particulate respirator, you can buy them in bulk from pretty much any hardware store or drug store. It'll protect you from dust and asbestos, but if you're venturing into any buildings that are fuming toxic or sour gases, then you need to exit and report that right away! No building should ever be venting poisonous gases, abandoned ...


5

I am not an "urban explorer" but in other uses I have never found the simple fiber masks like ShemSeger pictures to seal well enough to be much good. It doesn't matter how good the filter material is if air leaks around the sides. I would only trust something with an actual gasket. How much airborne mouse dung possibly transmitting hantavirus would you ...


5

The best strategy is to probably hike an alternate hike. Instead of the traditional NOBO GAME route with a start date at the end of March, you could go SOBO, or do a flip flop, or start early or late. By avoiding the crowds, you reduce your risks. You can also avoid shelters and hostels. Good hygiene, plenty of rest, and a proper diet are also useful for ...


4

You are experiencing a strain of the LCL, the Lateral Collateral Ligament that connects your femur to your fibula with IT Band syndrome. The mechanics of going downhill when hiking are significantly different than up. When taking a step down from a height of more than 6 inches, the femur tends to stay perpendicular to the ground, under the hip joint while ...


4

In the civilized world you wash your hands regularly, and food handlers should so and additionally wear gloves so if they carry any pathogen, it's not transmitted to the food. We don't have that luxury during outdoorsman activities such as hiking, but we do have two tools we can use to limit exposure. Carry and use hand sanitizer. Use it before and after ...


4

Acquire it 6 months or less before your trip on the AT. There is some controversy but it seems you can probably count on immunity from an exposure to last 6+ months. Some of the best places to acquirer Norovirus (that are easily accessible) are daycare centers and nursing homes. Volunteering at one or more of these institutions, is win/win you get to ...


3

Very simply: if you eat snow, all the energy that would be melt the snow is energy currently in your body. Lots of heat loss direct from your body. If you put snow in an outer layer of your clothes, then much of the energy that would melt the snow is energy that was in the process of escaping to the outside air. Effectively the snow is capturing some of ...


3

I suppose you mean outside of village, so you are talking about streams and sources. In any alpine areas (France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria) I drink water unfiltered when I assume that there are no alps (place with cattle during summer) upstream, which worked for me. Of course you usually cannot be 100% sure about it, but almost so. If there is cattle ...


3

Soak feet in salt water. It dries out bottom of feet so blisters don't occur


3

When walking uphill, your hips, knee and ankle flex, which reduces the effective stiffness of the articulated leg (i.e increases the 'springiness' of the gait). When going downhill, we tend to use both a more straight-legged gait with a more pronounced heelstrike, which increases the stiffness of the articulated leg (i.e reduces the 'springiness' of the ...



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