# Tag Info

66

From a thermodynamics point of view, I'd say you should leave the water in. Temperature is a measure of the active kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. Warming up is essentially the surrounding environment imparting some of its kinetic energy into the object being warmed up. Simply thinking about that, the more you have that needs warming, the ...

37

We (Kent and Deny) did an experiment in order to shed some light on this debate. We found that keeping the water in the cooler along with the ice kept the overall temperature of the cooler below 5 degrees Celsius for approximately 4 hours longer than when the water was removed. Experiment. We filled a Coleman cooler with 12 341mL bottles of Waterloo Dark ...

19

Never remove cold water from a cooler so long as the water is cooler than the outside temperature. Opening the lid allows more warm air in, but assuming the lid is on the top and air disturbance minimal, this could be a small loss of cooling / small entry of heat. Opening a drain will have to let warm air in to replace whatever cool water leaves the cooler....

16

First of all: Walking a glacier contains some serious risks and roping up is not enough to cover that risks, but also knowledge of crevasse rescue is needed. Therefore I strongly recommend a glacier course where all those things are taught. Now for some basic things to consider when walking a glacier as a roped party: When walking a glacier, one normally ...

15

You never want to stop yourself with the crampons because they are liable to catch, flip you over and, at best, put you in a worse situation than before and, at worst, break your legs. Instead you want to first stop yourself using the pick of the ice axe, with your crampons raised above the ice. You can use your knees as an additional brake. The way you do ...

14

Yaktrax advertises products intended to help with this, which might be less damaging to interior surfaces than crampons. You can find some SE discussion on those kinds of products here. Keeping a low center of gravity can reduce probability of injury by reducing how far you fall. Positioning yourself so that if you do fall, a softer part of your body (...

14

EDIT: The more I consider this, the ambient air temperature around the cooler is the largest factor. Replacing water with 95F (35C) degree air will have a much larger impact than replacing water with 40F (4.4C) degree air. Actually, the answer is very simple because you asked longer, not colder. If you drain all the water, then when the ice all melts......

12

This is what I found from the net: Flip the bottle up side down preventing the ice from forming near the top Obvious one: put the bottle inside a bag or a jacket use a heated hydration system instead adding electrolytes (suggested by Russell Steen)

11

The answer of @BenediktBauer covers pretty much everything you have to know as a beginner on glaciers. What you also have to know is the proper knot (and that was the second part of your question). You can use the figure eight, like is recommended in sport climbing too (so most people will already know this knot). You of course have to watch out, because of ...

8

Although @ReverendGonzo gave a nice answer I want to start a little debate. There is no explicit answer to this question. Different alpine clubs have different opinions and even different mountain guides in one organization. That being said, I think the process described by @ReverendGonzo (which I will call default process) is very common and also the ...

7

When it's possible you will be crossing ice on your route, there is a couple of stages: Planning at home First of all, you should explore the area of your trip. The question is are the water sources frozen and how thick is the ice Small lakes in the forest, where there is no winds and no water flow, freeze first. If you know that a couple of small lakes ...

7

Here at south Russia, we have lots of ice surfaces every winter and need to walk around. So, practical experience: The simplest option to reduce slipping will be to just glue some hard waterproof low-grit (approx 60-120 grit) sanding paper on the bottom of your shoes. This is often used here amongst aging people that are less agile due to their age. If ...

7

This actually happens to be pretty relevant to Physics(so it's kind of odd it was migrated away from the Physics.SE). You were actually on the right track with the penguin idea and increasing your co-efficient of friction. The graphic in this article has been floating around the internet for a while now. It's pretty self-explanatory, but the gist of it is ...

6

Are rubber soles the best alternative to heavy boots, or has anyone found another material that maximises friction with the ice? Rubber soles will have zero effect on ice. You need something that will dig into the ice to stop you slipping, rubber suffers from the same issues as any other material, it simply cannot get enough traction on the ice. Is ...

6

I sometimes leave melted ice water in my cooler, which then gets into the food, making the food inedible. If my "food" is a can of beer, fine, leave the water in the cooler. If it's a sandwich, drain the water if it might get the sandwich wet. Or have the cans of beer at the bottom and put the sandwich on top to keep it out of the ice water. Another "...

5

To expand on Steed's great answer, namely one point: If you have fallen into the water, it's very difficult to escape yourself I would go as far as to say it's often nigh on impossible, if you haven't been through any training, to get out of your own accord. You will panic, cold will set in quickly, you'll likely be in some form of shock from the cold ...

5

There's a lot that you can do in regards to walking style: Avoid walking on the ice if you can. (if it's a poorly cleared sidewalk, and there's snow on grass near it, walk in the snow) If it's a layer of ice over a base of snow, crack the ice by walking heel first (and really put your weight into it), so that you create footprints in the snow rather than ...

5

A quick online search shares a few tips which echo what I've heard from ice fishermen and experienced myself: Ice freezes first and thaws first at the edges, and these areas tend to be weaker. Knowing the terrain and where the shallows and weak spots are is important. Larger and more turbulent bodies of water take longer to freeze. If you're going to test ...

4

I am unfortunate in that our weather is warm and wet with a lot of melt/freeze cycles, and have lots of experience dealing with skiing on sheets of ice. here I am using "Ice" loosely to mean anything from true ice to hard packed snow you need razor sharp edges to stay upright and in control. Ice and snowboards don't make for a great day out, so avoiding it ...

4

You need between 3 and 4" of clear ice to be safe, but, with practice, you can visually determine if there is this amount or more. The key is that ice can support your weight in boots and not yet be safe for dynamic or concentrated loads (i.e. jumping or ice skating). The basic technique is that you first bash the edge of the ice (it is always thinnest at ...

3

Approaching this from a physics standpoint, the primary reason people slip on ice is due to low friction. I personally think this is not the case, but rather, the low friction is the gunpowder to the bullet that is sliding, but the trigger is not the low friction. The real trigger (in my opinion of course) is force. It is impossible to move without force, ...

3

This is a great topic deserving of some controlled experimentation. In general the system is non-linear, but can be analyzed in a piece-wise linear fashion the same way many other difficult problems are approached. Some thoughts on the matter; 1)conduction not convection, is the main transport mechanism, 2)cold does not exist, only the absence of heat, 3) ...

3

As a rafter I have taken part in lots of discussions about this and couldn't resist any longer so have set up an experiment to test this. I hypothesize that the drained cooler will hold ice longer due to the insulating effect of air--as Snitse has described above. Convection will reduce air's effectiveness but, as Snitse points out, it is still far ...

3

Here is a different twist on the question of how to best use block ice. Before refrigeration northern states used to saw block ice fron frozen lakes and store for the summer in "ice houses", log houses that used only the thermal inertia of massive amounts of ice stacked together. We just returned from a 6 day canoe trip in which we used block ice to keep ...

3

Ok, put away your calculators people. Draining the cool water causes the warm air to enter the cooler. Cool water is COOLER than warm air, so leave the cool water in the cooler. If I had a compass, some graph paper a protractor handy I'd draw you a picture.

3

The thermal conductivity of air is 0.000057 The thermal conductivity of water is 0.0014 Therefore water is 24.5 times more conductive than air, and has a temperature above 32 degrees Fahrenheit. The reason this is a problem is that bacteria can grow in that water quite quickly (within 6 hours) and start to make your food unhealthy to eat. Additionally all ...

3

You may have luck with a thermos flask, or similar insulated flask above a regular water bottle. If you're only going out for a day or so at a time the flask should keep the contents at a stable enough temperature so it doesn't freeze. For longer trips, you may need a more elaborate system with heating to stop the ice.

3

If your aim is just to avoid falling, do as WBT suggests and get some ice-grips. These can be put on and removed in seconds and can be carried in a small bag or even a pocket. But if you get UK-type weather, in which ice is often patchy, avoid grips that use what look like steel springs. These are easily broken on hard surfaces like pavement. Better ...

3

Good Ice Sounds obvious, but that's the answer, you need to learn how to identify good solid ice for all your screw placements. The best ice is the thickest ice you can find, so you can place your longest screws; clear and blue will be the most solid, while the worst ice is cloudy or brown, full of bubbles (aerated) and 'crunches' when you poke it, or has ...

3

In sweden, where skate touring is a popular winter sport, skaters bring a device called "ispik". (Ice pike). They come in two varieties. Either double pike, that looks like a sturdier version of a ski pole or a single pike that looks more like a broomstick with a tapered metal point. Generally speaking a single pike is easier to use but a double pike can ...

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