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9

What you describe is exactly how it was done: Accurate measurement of distances and angles Obviously, measuring distances on flat ground is relatively straightforward: you use a known length measurement (perhaps a robe marked at known intervals); and to measure the distance to a distant point, use two points and a bit of geometry (Pythagoras is helpful ...


7

While Rory Alsop's answer points exactly to the method followed by cartographers and geologists before the invention of GPS and other modern techniques, I'd like to make a point that it was done with an assumption that they knew what altitude they are at and when you stand at planar location located from a mountain at a known distance and you can figure out ...


6

The topics of navigation and cartography are two sides of the same coin, and there are entire books written about each. It is interesting to study the history of cartography because it very graphically shows the corresponding improvements in navigation over time. In order to make an accurate map, you need to know first where you are making your ...


5

I would recommend a site like CalTopo (my favorite) or Hillmap; you can import GPX files into them, or click on points to define a path. For Caltopo, creating a path by clicking might not be immediately obvious; first choose "Add New Object", then select "Line", and once you've edited any details you can click each waypoint or hold down shift while ...


4

Walk the line on a humid very cold still morning. If the hot spring is of any significance -- e.g. enough surface to get in, and enough flow to be hot, -- you should get a plume of steam rising off the water. This will likely require an air water temperature differential of at least 40 degrees F to be visible. I have seen 'steam' (fog) tendrils off of ...


3

It helps to know what is going on underground when looking for geological patters. Hot springs are of course geothermally heated by pockets of magma in the crust that are relatively close to the surface. Understanding the underlaying strata and ground water patters are essential to accurately predicting where hydraulic phenomena will appear. At the very ...


3

Many printer drivers and other software allow you to "tile" a large document or a magnified one on multiple pages. You can usually specify the overlap between pages, which only needs to be enough for you to cut cleanly. 0.1 inch is usually good enough. Acrobat reader may even have such a option. I know I've done this a few times with my printer, a ...


3

Most applications will let you minimise your margins, which reduces waste, then all you do is cut the margin off one page, and then stick that page over the other one, which gives you a solid connection - adhesive tape front and back.


3

For central Europe I can recommend www.wanderreitkarte.de, which is a German site but has also an English and Italian language layer. Its data is based on openstreetmap data which is (at least in Germany) much more detailed off the beaten track than google maps is. Unfortunately it does not contain Norway, where your hike has obviously been done. ...


2

Note: updated 11 Aug 2015 to add Viewranger. I had a similar question (which I have deleted) relating to the UK, here's what I found (from comments to my deleted Q and from answers here) that varies from the other answers here I primarily wanted to draw a post-walk track from memory as a longer term record of where I'd been. I carry a GPS but don't turn ...


2

As the other answers point out using trigonometry you can determine the height of a distant peak. You can also use the same approach horizontally to determine the distance between two points. Provided that the length of one side of a triangle is known the other two sides can be calculated. Using a combination of these techniques any area can be divided into ...


2

You need to do some research on the area that you are traveling on. Google maps or the NOAA maps using seaclearII.exe will allow you the ability to make a map guide, that you can annotate as you travel. mark off 100 yard and point to point track measurments. If you are going to dead recon from point to point on a river as an exercise or recreation you might ...


1

One of the primary techniques is the use of Dead Reckoning although the secrets of long distance Polynesian maritime navigation still remain a mystery despite huge evidence of their wayfinding ability. The easiest way for maritime navigators to map locations was to build on the predecessors knowledge through the use of the Periplus. It served the same ...


1

I don't know about online website, but you can use a handheld GPS like Etrex to keep track of your progress. And since this stores GPS in a common format, you can import this data into another program that will render it in Google Maps which you can then display on your web browser.


1

In terms of planning distances I figure 5:1 for elevation. That is, a meter up effectively adds 5 meters horizontally. This is true for up and down both. In practice the up part takes longer for any but the most fit, but coming down is still slower than flat (you are picking your foot landing more carefully.) Both going up and going down you are taking ...



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