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12

Around sunrise and sunset, the sun is much less intense. You would get around 5 times less intensity in the first or last hour of sunlight than in the middle of the day. Here is a graph of this effect (It's from a paper, though the paper itself is behind a paywall), and another one which also shows the effect of latitude. Therefore, while you can’t say ...


7

As found here: "With every 1000 m in altitude, UV levels increase by approximately 10 per cent." Percentages are tricky to work with, so here is a worked-out example. Suppose you start out at sea level (0m), and you climb all the way up to Mt. Everest's summit (8848m). Suppose also that at sealevel, you normally need to apply sun block factor 15. Then, ...


6

If you absolutely must have a fire, reset your thinking from "fire pit" to "fire mound" Creating a fire mound is a great way to enjoy a back-country fire with little to no impact to the ground / vegetation. Carry a small sheet of plastic, burlap, or a section of an old fire shelter, or anything of the like (it shouldn't get hot enough to burn if your ...


5

Heat illnesses are about heat, not light, and while the two are not unrelated, the hue of your clothing would be a very minor factor— red would not provide better or worse protection than green or blue or any other part of the visible spectrum. The shade may have some impact: since darker clothing absorbs more energy than lighter clothing, it warms up and ...


4

You don't need a trad rack of your own in order to follow. If you're climbing with experienced trad leaders who have their own racks, then you also don't need to bring your own rack. If you're going to lead, you just borrow their gear. In your situation, there is really no advantage to buying a lot of trad gear before you try following on trad climbs at all. ...


3

Well, insulating the floor from a campfire, which usually has 900-1200 degrees Celsius and burns for several hours, is quite difficult. The soil itself does a decent job, but of course that's the part that you don't want to burn... Restoring life to a scorched patch of soil will take a while, but relatively speaking a couple of scorched patches won't make ...


2

One thing I think that's missing from Ben's answer is a half rope. If your climbing on a trad route that moves about a lot you'll want to use two half ropes rather than a standard single rope. The idea behind a half/double rope is that it reduces drag, if you have two anchors that are far apart on the same route, this can produce a Z in the rope which ...


2

A white colour for head protection (and all other clothes) will keep you the coolest, black will keep you the hottest. All other colours are somewhere in between. This is because white fabric reflects the most light (all wavelengths of visible light), while black absorbs all (red reflects only the red channel). As for the efficiency - I have sometimes ...


1

There's two schools of thought here that I know of - the first is to avoid lighting a fire where there's ground you could easily damage, and the second is avoiding the heat getting to the ground. Combine both if you can. As far as the first goes, I won't say a great deal about that because beyond the obvious (being open minded about where you camp and ...


1

If you are looking for a cooking system for backpacking the Caldera Sidewinder Ti-Tri have the option of using a titanium floor for this exact purpose. In the interest of facilitating Leave No Trace wood burning practices, Trail Designs offers two styles of titanium floor plates to go under your Ti-Tri systems. The "split floor" is designed to go with ...



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