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I have used them heaps for Rappelling, and am more comfortable using a Snow bollard than any other single anchor. I have seen snow stakes bend under the load of one person, ice screws pull the ice off the rock. I have seen deadmen fail when the knots came undone (might have been incorrectly clipped 'biner) (students on that course got a valuable knot tying ...


Well, the primary difference is that once you've used your ice axe as an anchor, you can't use it to climb with. Also, two anchors is almost always better than one, especially in snow. You never know the exact strength of anchor in snow. While it is possible to improvise a deadman anchor in snow out of almost anything you can wrap a rope around, it's not ...


To answer your first question,"If the situation asks for it, should a mountaineer be donating blood at higher altitude?" I'm assuming you're referring to a life and death situation on the mountain where someone desperately needs an emergency transfusion to survive an accident, and whether or not it is safe to offer your blood. My answer would be yes, you ...


I'm not super experienced with snow anchors, but basically a snow bollard can be a bomber anchor if the snow is hard -- hard enough that you have to use an ice ax to chop the trench. You can back it up using one or more objects such as ice axes or pickets, to make it more difficult for the anchor to fail by having the rope cheese-grater itself through the ...


If you are roped up for glacier travel and the person in front of you has just fallen in then you can hammer a snow stake in to provide an anchor. Note that in this case you probably won't have your ice axe available since it will be stuck in the ground with your knee bracing it, holding up your mate. I've not seen the shorter stakes (the snow flukes) in ...


Rust is not harmful to consume in either form (red or black) Black rust is magnetite and is what makes cast iron cookware black. What is dangerous is being cut by something rusty, and danger has nothing to do with the rust itself. It is simply a great place for tetanus bacteria to live.


In additions to other answers, I build my own stakes for about $10 each and happily leave them behind when rappelling off routes if no other options exist. Leaving your ice Axe, pack, hammer etc behind is not only iffy in terms of survival, its expensive.


Wow, very nice answer. Much appreciated. I'm experienced at multipitch rappelling and I have been considering various techniques for different situations, this helped make a few decisions. This is the most comprehensive answer I've ever seen. Thanks


It's harmless. Rinse out anything loose. If you want, add a handfull of gravel, a cup of water, and shake for 10 minutes to get stuff out. A thermos is going to be food grade metal. So the alloys will not be exotic ones with chromium or vanadium in quantity. In passing: a 1 or 2 liter bottle with a pair of heavy socks pulled over it works nicely as a ...

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