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32

The short answer is "bear spray"; a firearm is really not the most effective option. That said... I will assume you are looking for grizzly protection, since you didn't specify the bear and black bears are relatively shy. Again, using spray is a far more effective way of improving your odds; a review of its use in Alaska found a 98% success rate, with no ...


30

There is no specific distance from which a person can fall and have it said they will survive or not survive. There are simply too many other variables that will dominate the factor of "distance." In 1971, flight attendant Vesna Vulović fell 33,333 ft (10,160 meters) and survived without a parachute. On the other hand 556,000 people died in 2013 from ...


25

I personally had a similar sort of a question when I first went through similar kind of stats about these mountains. Getting introduced with these stats is different than totally understanding the mountain and the pandora box it opens. For getting acquainted with the reasons for so many failed attempts, one needs to read tactical data and expedition reports. ...


23

It's not the fall that gets you, it's the sudden stop at the end. The most detailed data on the effects of large accelerations (or equivalently, decelerations) on the human body comes from research into spaceflight and aircraft ejection systems. There is a very detailed paper from NASA here, from which figure 5 (p. 36) is most useful. The summary is: it ...


20

TL;DR - First try to identify if the wire is supposed to carry electricity (insulators on posts/wire goes to an electrical box/posted warning signs/ect...). There's really not much you can do to check the wire for current without a device aside from listening to it, touching it (potentially dangerous), or throwing something onto it that might react to a ...


19

Obviously, you're better off not going near the water in the first place. If there are storm clouds anywhere within your vicinity, do not spend unnecessary time in the water and consider the possibility of flash floods. If you do find yourself in the water, form a circle. You place your hands around the shoulders of the two people closest to you, and they ...


17

Make a big fire. This may sound silly and couterintuitive, but the reason is pretty simple. If you make a small fire you need to put your stuff pretty close to it to have any chance of drying it in a decent amount of time. And if you put clothes or boots near the fire, then you concretely risk to burn them. While if you make a bigger fire, your equipment ...


15

There are few things which may go wrong: Injury. Carry some kind of the shelter. It may take few hours for mountain rescue to get to your group. Tired. Make sure you have alternative shorter and simpler route in your head. Dehydrated. Carry a bit of extra water or a purification tablets to gather water from streams. Scared. Your rope can serve a good ...


14

Static ropes are used whenever you're working with a static load, either raising or lowering. Dynamic ropes should be used whenever there is potential for a fall and high impact forces. Static ropes are used for rappelling/abseiling, ascending, hauling, rescue work and making anchors (accessory cord). Pretty much they are to be used in every situation ...


13

The best plan is to plan to make sure that you don't get in a situation where you may need to cross a flooded stream. But, that said, as you talked of a flood situation, that can happen over a night with heavy pouring and so on so forth. Where, its really worth a second thought, that should you be crossing the stream at all, sometimes, with some careful ...


13

Growing up in rural New Zealand, we often encountered electric fences. Some of them were illegally high-powered to deal with big animals. We tested fences either with the back of our hands or with a piece of grass. As specified a few times in this question (thanks @Michael Martinez), using the back of the hand is for safety. An electric shock can cause ...


12

If you're not a climber, then don't buy a climbing rope for doing roof repairs. If you're going to buy a rope for a very specific job, then you should get the right equipment for the job. For about the same cost as a climbing rope you could get a full roofers kit that comes with a: 5 point safety harness 50ft lifeline anchor plate 3' shock absorbing ...


11

A trek group should have a Leader who walks in front who leads the trail/route/climb, sometimes cleaning the route or navigating the route. I believe that will be you. Then the second most important person is the Back Lead, who is the last head you have, who makes sure that the pace of the group is maintained and adapted as per the slowest member. You'll ...


11

How can I practice specifically for traverses? A lot of climbing gyms (especially bouldering ones) have traversing walls. If you can find one of these practice there. Or find a boulder that you can circuit climb (climb in a circle around the bottom). How should I go about a traverse with Undercut holds specifically? Generally the trick to ...


11

Are my fears of the anchor pieces popping out justified? Yes. This is an especially big concern when the climber has already placed the first piece of pro above the anchor, but falls before getting a second piece in. The fall factor can be large, and the direction of pull is up. If you don't have any gear that can hold against an upward pull, then your ...


11

Its not necessarily bad as long as you are careful, also somewhat dependent on material. Generally, you want to arrange your clothes so that they are about a temperature where you could comfortably hold your hand. If your clothes are steaming keep a close eye on them and think about moving them back. Material is also an important factor synthetic ...


11

16ft (5m) When rock climbing, you're pretty much guranteed to be landing on rock if you fall. When I trained in CSPS and EMP III, the magic number was 16ft (~5m). If someone fell from upright with their feet above that height or higher onto a solid surface, then they were an instant bag and drag, aka: strapped to a spine-board and rushed to the hospital. ...


11

Being as the bag is synthetic and the water was relatively clean your likely ok to boil wash it and use it again. If it had been down and/or contaminated water I'd strongly recommend binning it. Down would have rotted and you couldn't guarantee getting rid of all of the nasties in contaminated water. Caveat(s) It's not going to be like brand new. The ...


11

Snow blindness is at best very painful. UV damage to your eyes is not something you want to play around with. If only 40% protection they are are not sunglasses, they are fashion accessories and offer no where near enough to protect your eyes for more than an hour. For $10 you will get glasses that provide 99% protection, why risk it?


10

Anecdotally, the only three factors which may cause you problems are: supplies running out losing fitness boredom And these are really only an issue if you are stuck for extended periods of time. Your solutions are: exercises you can do in your tent, or just outside - stretches, press-ups, sit-ups, basic cardio - will help you maintain a level of ...


10

Several things kill people on mountains, many of these are within the individuals control (ensuring they have the right kit, etc.) I'm going to ignore these because all things being equal these should be relatively static (i.e. the mountain itself doesn't make a person more or less well prepared) So here are some factors that affect how dangerous or not a ...


10

I understand your question such that you are asking about fences for livestock and alike, not high-security fences. It is your responsibility to check if you could get in danger. If the fence looks like it was made to withstand humans and/or aggressive animals, I suggest not to touch it with anything. Apart from that (I have actually never seen a fence like ...


10

No, it is not safe to burn just any kind of wood, because some woods contain toxins that have the potential to be fatal if inhaled as ash (poison oak, poison ivy). However, most wood found in nature is safe. There's no such thing as smoke that won't cause damage to the lungs, smoke is a particle, your body has many levels of defense to try and prevent ...


10

As a kid we often went on hiking trips and I got my first knife when I was around eight to ten years old. Below are some of the things my parents looked out for when I was a child. Obviously this is addressed at an even younger age than OP described, so you might have to adapt it accordingly... General advice For beginners either get a fixed blade, or one ...


9

A crevasse that wide cannot just be jumped across (unless you're among the top long jumpers of the world), therefore you have only two possibilities: avoid it or build a bridge over it. Typically such bridges are built using aluminum ladders (cf. image below) that are placed across the crevasse and fixed on both sides. In the ideal case one also builds some ...


9

The Problem with metallic equipment and cold temperatures is that your hands are moist, if you touch a very cold metallic surface (or any other smooth surface), your moisture will freeze to the surface which causes the top layer of your skin to get stuck on the surface. For Example: it's freezing cold outside and you put your tongue (which is very moist, ...


9

Sometimes shadows or shapes in the snow give away the location of covered crevasses. Sometimes you can detect a crevasse with a shallow covering of snow by poking with an ice axe or a probe of some sort. The only sure way to detect if there is a crevasse is when you can see it, or when you fall into it when you cannot see it.


9

If the glacier isn't snowless (aper) you can probe for spaces under the surface which should be noticed by less resistance in the snow/Firn. Still it is preferable to avoid going in regions where one would expect crevasses. This isn't easy like it is tough to know how the weather is going to evolve in the mountains. But still we could try to use some theory ...


9

I had always assumed that after you adapted to the thin air, the risk to your body was how thick your blood got with the production of extra red blood cells to compensate for the lack of oxygen. an increase of red blood cells will only happen after a long period of time. This is why athletes often train at high altitude. this is a very gradual ...


9

Altitude acclimatization is not just a single change in your body but a long list of different things that are going on. There is a nice chart on p. 326 of House and Johnston, Training for the New Alpinism, which gives a list of the following adaptations (they label #6 as two items): increased ventilation rate increased heart rate and blood pressure blood ...



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