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76

Wild dogs can indeed be dangerous, and packs can be extremely dangerous. You do not want to take on a pack of dogs if you can at all avoid it, and running is often a particularly bad idea. I suggest starting with the basics: try to keep the dog calm and don't try to intimidate it. This means: Don't make direct eye contact, and remember that sunglasses ...


36

Anybody who has severe allergies which could lead to anaphylaxic shock should carry appropriate medication with them. Typically, that would consist of: An antihistamine (e.g. benadryll) An epinephrine auto-injector (aka "Epi-Pen") Benadryll is available over the counter and you should have it in your first aid kit. Epi is by prescription only (at least ...


34

In the UK (we don't have many dangerous animals) cows are the most dangerous animals you're likely to come across. They kill about a dozen people every year. Typically most deaths are caused by herds trampling people/farmers. A lot of people are wary of bulls. In my experience a herd of mother cows is more dangerous, especially if they cows think you are a ...


30

To the question of whether you should run from a pack of dogs that may be aggressive, the answer is an unqualified NO!. As to what you should do, the answer is a bit more complicated. In the vast majority of cases, dogs won't attack you without provocation. As always, assume the best but prepare for the worst. The basics: Be Prepared: Prevention is ...


30

TLDR: Foxes do not attack humans. So you can go there day and night. To me this sounds more like a spooking story than reality. Foxes hunt very small animals, humans are way too big for them. Anyway, in their natural habitat they are extremely shy and will run away from you most likely before you are even aware of its presence. Foxes with rabies can lose ...


29

The question asks for an instance where a bear climbing a tree attacks a human. I found a news article of a hunter being attacked by a black bear in a tree. I don't think this is a completely satisfying answer since the question implies the question: Why would a bear expend the effort to climb up a tree to attack a human? I am not a bear expert but I read ...


29

Dehydration will very quickly reduce your ability to undertake the activities required to survive and so finding and conserving water should be a very high priority in any survival situation. Clearly there are potential dangers associated with drinking contaminated water but these need to be weighed against the dangers of dehydration. As with most survival ...


26

I'd say the only circumstances where you could try to run is when a safe place is near (your car, some kind of shelter, a tree you can climb etc.), the dogs are already alert and running to you (otherwise you could just walk to the shelter without them noticing), and you can realistically make it to the shelter before the dogs do. Remember that dogs car run ...


25

How much sea water can I safely drink? = None If you drink sea water, how much fresh water do you need to drink to off set the sea water you drank? = 2.8 units of distilled water per 1 unit of sea water (to neutralize without adding hydration) The "scientific" answer to this question involves a lot of complex math, human physiology and significant ...


24

So far all of the answers are assuming the wild dogs are actively hunting you or at least seriously considering attacking you. This might be due to the part of your question where you say: ... or should I stand fast and defend myself? If the dogs appear to be actively hunting you then a controlled exit to a safe area as suggested by Dmitry Grigoryev is ...


23

When a rattlesnake gets his rattle on, what exactly is the desired reaction it's expecting from you, and what other indicators does it give you that a strike is imminent? It's a warning that it's there, it's not necessarily a warning that it's about to strike (though of course, it could.) Likewise they won't always rattle before they strike. However, bear ...


22

I often encounter semi-wild cattle on the "range" here in Idaho. Much of our land is public, primarily mountainous, and has seasonal cattle grazing (spring to fall). Cows with calves and range bulls are a definite danger if you don't pay attention. The range bulls are a bit like moose: occasionally scared of people, but usually a bit irritated by your ...


18

Basically, "spotting" someone means making sure that they safely land on the pad with their feet first to prevent injuries in case of a fall. This means several distinct tasks: Moving a falling climber to the pad: try to guide them towards the pad, ideally by pushing at the hips or shoulders. Don't try to catch them (which includes not standing directly ...


17

Ahh, I have been waiting for this. This answer would definitely be not much of a help if you hate complicated biology and physiology and related terms. But anyone who is equally interested in snakes is welcome to have a read through. While I am really sorry that I can't simply answer it as these many months or these many years, what I can explain here is a ...


17

Was it better than no protection? Probably. Would I recommend it? No. The reason is this: DMM performed some tests where they anchored a sling to a carabiner and a load (80kg), and dropped the load from various heights. The results are a bit more nuanced, but the gist is that you should never fall onto a sling from at or above the anchor without any dynamic ...


17

First of all, next time I'm in India I'm gunna give you a call so you can show me where that tunnel is. Second, the only real precaution you need to take is to ensure that in the event of a train encounter, that there is room for the train to pass by safely with you in the tunnel. I've actually been caught in train tunnel with a train coming the other way. ...


17

The job of a spotter is to prevent the climber from landing on their head and (if possible) ensure they land on their feet and on the crashpad. This may involve moving the crashpad (which should coincide with the climber having a secure hold or position. The job of a spotter is not to "catch" the climber! That's something they're simply not going to be able ...


17

The best thing to do is just avoid it completely. If you can't go around because the bush is too thick, find a plenty long enough stick and get it off the path. The snake won't chase you, it's just defending itself. Do NOT pick the snake up with the stick, just get a hook on it as best you can and fling it gently off the path.


17

The overall risk comparison between being alone or in a group can be split into parts: falling: no increased risk This is obviously independent of being in a group or soloing as climbing on a via ferrata is a solo activity. severity of fall: hardly any increased risk The safety device used on via ferratas is a single user device. So the only factor ...


16

Already some great answers here. TBH, haven't been able to go through all of them, so adding in a short summary as what I do and ask people to follow. Answer to question 1: Thumb rule: Never ever ever ever try to handle a snake. If you don't know what snake it is, whether venomous or not, or a semi-venomous, refer rule #1. If you don't know a snake well ...


16

The question doesn't state what geographical area it's about, and it really isn't possible to give an answer that covers everything. In this answer, I'm only going to deal with pristine backcountry areas in North America, such as the Sierra. In order to interpret the scientific evidence properly, it's necessary to understand some scientific background about ...


16

I know that if you cross the Bering Strait to Northern Asia (Siberia, etc.) you'll find that bears hibernate in huge nests in the tops of trees. So climbing trees is not a problem for bears. They must do it in that region because there are tigers about. The real question has to do with the nature of the bear in question. I've turned about in the woods to ...


15

I couldn't have come up with a better example of "how carabiners should never be used" if I tried! In fact, the most likely explanation for that picture is either such a deliberate bad example, or a joke. A quite likely incomplete list: Use of non-locking carabiners in an anchor - rightmost arrow shows a nut wire just waiting to slip through a wire gate ...


15

Be observant If you go to the gym often take note of who the regulars are and their general abilities. You aren't going to know everyone's name but you might get a rough idea of their capabilities. This will give you introduction lines like: I haven't seen you around here very much. Are you new? I noticed you mostly stick to bouldering. Last week ...


15

Yes. My wife is a geologist and has been on a couple of research cruises in the south Pacific and Indian oceans. It used to be quite common to have a "swim call" when the seas were calm. The vessel would stop, and the crew and scientific staff would go for a swim. In one case a student lost her leg to a shark during a swim call on a NOAA ship. I believe that ...


14

When I was a child (probably about 10) I had a small herd of cows all run down the hill towards me as I was crossing the field. They didn't look aggressive and there was no bull so I just stood still and waited since I was in the middle of the field so unlikely to be able to outrun them. They stopped and milled around me for a bit, while I spoke in a calm ...


14

There is already an answer that gives the basics, and this official page from the Coast Guard adds several details, so here is my summary. The system of ratings for Personal Flotation Devices (PFDs) was developed jointly by the United States Coast Guard (USCG) and Underwriters Laboratory (UL) and has been in use for many decades. USCG had announced they ...


14

This is not a complete list per se. If bouldering outdoors, particularly with an overhang, wear a helmet. This isn't to protect you from a fall, it's to protect your head for if rocks get knocked down onto you. When spotting, maintain an athletic stance. If you just stand normally, you won't be able to absorb impact from a fall as well. "Spoons, not ...


13

Safety is not absolute and there is no such thing as "safe", there is only safer or less safe. There is no doubt wearing head phones is less safe than not wearing them. The question you are really asking is "Is wearing headphone safe enough" Its a long time since humans had to worry about saber tooth tigers jumping out of the bush, so some of the primal ...


13

According to Backpacker, and the National Park Service, peeing attracts some large predators because animals like the salty taste: ...urinate well away from camp on rock, sandy areas, or duff. Animals are attracted to salts in urine... I would argue, therefore, that urinating around your campsite is not a good idea when near large predatory animals. ...



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