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13

This is highly dependent on the type of water as well as the location, but I'll summarise a few things to be aware of. In many locations most of these dangers won't factor in, but they're useful things to bear in mind if you're trying to assess the danger of a particular body of water. I'll focus on the sea here - for other things such as rivers similar ...


12

You need to distill it - I'm assuming that freezing is not an option (unless you're camping in the extreme latitudes). This is easiest, as the ice on top is almost pure water. Where you don't have a freezer available - boiling the water, capturing the steam and condensing it back to water will provide pure water.


9

On water, you can use the curvature of the earth to help you, and change your height instead of moving. According to the Boat Safe Kids web site, the formula for how far away the visible horizon is over water (in other words, how far you can see) is 1.17 * sqrt(eye height in feet) = (distance in miles) While wikihow says sqrt (1.5 * eye height in ...


8

Outdoors you can dig a hole and build SOLAR STILL. It is quick and dirty but works very well and it is time tested. Or you can put big plastic bag over brach with a lot of leaves on it and put rock on the bottom to capture the water. Make sure you don't do it on foliage that is toxic to people. If you have the bucks you could get a portable Reverse ...


7

I have a couple of extra points that were always relevant for us as kids growing up in an extremely tidal area (peaking at 16knots - 30mph!): Between islands, tidal races are usually predictable, and the local tide chart will let you know when slack tide (either high or low) is - these will be relatively safe times to swim. Halfway between these times the ...


6

You have two questions there. I will try to answer both: 1) Triangulation - if you can reasonably accurately pace out a 100 metre baseline and can estimate angles to within a few degrees then a rough estimate of distance is possible. An example from eso.org - in reality it is much easier than this as you can use very rough estimations to make the ...


6

Sunscreen and lip balm, saw a show where the people were burned badly. But that is something that you either have or don't. Your pants can usually be tied at the legs to create a short term Floatation Device. The "Deadman's Float" allows you to conserve a lot of energy. Basically you hang like a jellyfish in between breaths. As you breathe, kick and ...


6

That looks like fossilised coral (possibly a sponge?), the outside is smooth because it's been worn down by the erosion of the sea. There is quite a lot of fossilised corral on the north Wales coast, it was once a shallow, tranquil, tropical Carboniferous sea The Carboniferous period from wiki: The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that ...


3

I also would like to add: plants or sea 'wire' (hope that this is English). They tend to grow along the river banks and if your feet get strangled into it, it might be difficult to get your feet out of it, especially when the river flows.


3

Typically, if you are out in the open ocean and do not have a GPS device you don't have any useful way to measure velocity* This may not be a problem though, as what you are wanting is not your velocity, but an indication that you are heading in a straight line to the destination (if we assume a constant current) To do this, what you need is something to ...


2

I always learned swimming on your back does not cost much energy. Your hands which are mostly tired first do nothing while swimming this way and your legs do the work. Also you don't sink when you barely swim this way.


2

Adding one more, from my own experience: a "false floor". I stepped into a lake fully dressed with shorts and sandals, because I saw it was just 10 cm deep. Unfortunately, what I observed as being the floor of the lake, was in fact the upper layer of plant growth... and the lake was, at this shore, in fact more than 1 metre deep (but shallow enough to ...


1

My surfing/windsurfing knowledge is limited. But yes they can be dangerous and yes you should seek knowledge on currents before surfing anywhere. There are currents that can force you against rocks, or into sea caves or under water of the dreaded rip tides. Rip tides are nasty and can suck you out to sea. My mate was caught in one of these once and in a ...


1

You cannot estimate the current speed and direction on the open ocean without a fixed reference or navigation aid. But you can watch a star behind the rig to make sure your track is toward the oil rig. If you can swim faster than the current, you can always swim directly toward the oil rig and get there. You'll just have a curved track and will get to enjoy ...



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