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42

The calories to melt even frozen water are pretty small, and the water gained is certainly greater than that used to aid the use of those calories. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calorie So 1 calorie = 1 degree celcius (roughly with minor variation). Okay easy. Except it takes 30 times that to melt it initially. Screw snow, let's figure on ice cubes. 1 ...


36

All the advice I've seen emphasises melting snow before consuming to avoid lowering your core body temperature (rather than, specifically, risking dehydration). If possible, melt the snow using a stove, or alternatively, pack the snow into a waterproof container and keep it in a pocket or your sleeping bag until it melts. News stories such as this one, ...


24

Doing it correctly can ensure the temperature of the snow cave maintains around 32°F (0°C) or higher. Its not just about digging the extra hole but how the entire cave is constructed that can make the difference between life and death. Here's the general idea. Of course doing this won't guarantee your safety, but it sure helps. To answer your question ...


19

If it is clean, fresh snow, it is safe to drink. This is basically drinking rain water. It hasn't had time to pick up pollutants when it is newly fallen. I live in New England, and kids do this all the time. You get taught early to only do this with white snow. Make sure that the snow is actually clean: the longer it sits, and the more urbanized an area is, ...


17

The easiest way that I know of requires you to have some kind of rope or long straps and to be near evergreen trees. Depending on the strength of the needles and width of the trees limbs take anywhere from 1 to 4 ends of an evergreen tree limb. Be sure to use green wood so they can bend without breaking. Make each section about three times as long as your ...


16

This is really interesting, and I think it might be similar to why we don't generally have snow tires / chains etc as a common item here in stores. Certainly the South rarely gets snow, with Wales, The North and Scotland being more likely to get snow days. From the MET Office: The UK gets on average 33 days of snow fall or sleet a year (1971 - 2000). ...


13

As with any relatively unscientific field, there is a lot of lore out there that may have originally had a good scientific foundation, but the restrictions or specific conditions have long been forgotten and the answer takes on a life of its own out of context. The myth about eating snow seems to me to be one of these things. The main point is that it ...


13

If you don't have a compass or other instruments, it is possible to measure the slope with your two (ski) poles solely. Just hold one pole vertically by using gravity and stick it into the snow. Hold the other one horizontally until it reaches the slope with one end and the first pole with the other end. Now you check the height in which the poles contact ...


12

Trekking poles can telescope down and pack away. If you happen to have a shelter that uses trekking poles to hold it up, sometimes you need to be able to set your poles to a different height. Some people also like to lengthen/shorten their poles depending on whether they are going down or up hill. If your shelter doesn't require them, I think the ...


12

In general it really depends on the snow condition. Angle: If it's powder snow you need a quite steep angle (25 degrees and more). If it's icy/ hard/ wind slab snow then you can try it on a less steep (20 degrees) slope. Safety: I would search for a slope where you have a safe run off, if you can't manage do arrest yourself. And also that your runoff is ...


12

The best way to melt snow is to put it in a bottle inside your jacket under your mid layers while you're on the move and let your body heat melt it. Do not place it against the skin, leave a layer or two between you and the bottle. It's advisable to always leave your bottle in your jacket in subzero temperatures where it can freeze if left in your bag. ...


12

Pee on it. To keep the water drinkable, you'd want to have the liquids separated but still have good thermal transfer between them. A well equipped traveller will pick his/her thermos bottle and a condom, pee in the condom (ladies would probably do it the other way around), tie the condom and put in the bottle, fill the rest with snow, cap, wait and drink. ...


11

From a water purity point of view the same rules apply for drinking water. What is important though is the temperature. If you drink large amounts of snow at a low temperature (i.e. you don't heat it adequately and just drink it as it melts in your hand) then you may need to be careful. Basically if the temperature is low enough and you're ingesting large ...


10

Three thoughts: If the snow is thigh-high, then you should be either using touring skis or snowshoes to "float" over the snow. You'll expend way less energy. Seriously, I can cover probably 10x-50x the distance (or more) with alpine touring gear or snowshoes in the same amount of time as someone without, and that's regardless of the angle of slope. ...


10

You want to leave enough room at the entrance for airflow. If the entrance is totally blocked you could possibly suffocate on the CO2 you breathe out. In addition to the entrance, keep an eye on the air exit at the top so it doesn't get blocked. You can heat the inside significantly with just a candle.


9

If you can, melt it beforehand - not because of dehydration but because of the obvious; it'll cause you to get rather cold rather quickly! If you can't and it really is an emergency (the only time I'd suggest it might be worth considering) then I haven't found a general consensus on whether it's a good idea, probably because it comes very much down to ...


9

Well there are many ways to prevent this, the easiest way would be to trim the hair between the paws. You can also buy dog-sock to put on the dog, the best way if you have seen dogs running with dogsleds. And if you really don't want to do either of those options, you can buy paw-grease or paw-vox like "ice on ice". Hope this will help.


9

TLDR As long as you can walk normally (using the whole foot not just the toe area) always hold your axe at its head with the blade pointing backwards. More information This depends on the situation you are in. The text from Grivel seems to be a oversimplification. There is not just one technique for ascending and one for descending. There are two basic ...


8

For hard-packed or icy snow, steel runner sleds are quite fast. You can increase your speed by rubbing wax along the runners (we used candle stubs for this). Also, the heads are flexible and allow for steering.


8

An unhurdled slip-and-drop would be fatal without a doubt. If this is the case, then maybe you need a belay. However, if the snow is sufficiently deep and soft that you're sinking up to your knees, why is it the case that slipping and being unable to self-arrest is so dangerous? In these conditions, typically you can't even intentionally get going fast ...


8

To put it simply, carry a compass with you that has a clinometer to measure a slope's angle, set one of your poles down on the slope and place the compass on top of the pole to get a solid reading. If you spend enough time in one area you'll start to become familiar enough with the terrain to remember roughly what the angles are and which routes are the ...


8

In addition to the good answer by Aravona, there are two important reasons: Snow shoes are impractical on steep terrain because they put a lot of stress on your ankles. If you are going to buy equipment for going up snow-covered mountains, there is a much better solution: mountain skis with skins attached. Skins increase the grip tremendously. Example: ...


8

I think it's quite similar to skiing because the reason for kick-and-glide is to save energy. Same for snowshoes; try not to elevate the whole weight of the shoe for every step. Of course in deep snow you have to lift the leg including the snowshoe quite high, but not as high as you'd have to not wearing snowshoes. Open the fixture at the back to make the ...


8

I have used them heaps for Rappelling, and am more comfortable using a Snow bollard than any other single anchor. I have seen snow stakes bend under the load of one person, ice screws pull the ice off the rock. I have seen deadmen fail when the knots came undone (might have been incorrectly clipped 'biner) (students on that course got a valuable knot tying ...


8

I am willing to take the time to learn what I need to, so I don't want to go with the "easier to use at first" option. If you really mean that, then you can't not try skiing. There are many trails in Colorado where it is no easier to go uphill on snowshoes than to go uphill on skis, given even modest technique on skis -- but with even the smallest ...


7

Yes, but it will really make you cold. It takes about 30 times more heat to heat water (melt ice) from 31 to 33 degrees (F) than it does to heat it from 33 to 35 degrees. That heat comes from your body if you eat snow.


7

Best is of course subjective, but overall, given your question and caveats, I would say a good solid winter tent. To elaborate on the alternatives, if you have an assured amount of snow, then you can attempt some form of snow shelter. Building an actual igloo takes quite a bit of practice. Building a snow cave on the other hand is not that difficult, but ...


7

Lots of mushers will 'candle their dogs'. Use a candle and pass it quickly over the bottom of the paw. The flame singes the hairs between the toes and is harmless to the dog. Practice on your arm hairs to get the speed right. Much faster than trimming. Most dogs hate socks and will chew them off as soon as they can.


7

Walking technique You can save energy by not lifting your shoe higher then needed. And also how long steps you take. If it's steep try to make smaller steps to save energy. If you walk with poles use your poles with the correct length and technique as with cross-country-skiing, both for every step, one per step or asymmetric. Path planing I think you can ...


7

Well, the primary difference is that once you've used your ice axe as an anchor, you can't use it to climb with. Also, two anchors is almost always better than one, especially in snow. You never know the exact strength of anchor in snow. While it is possible to improvise a deadman anchor in snow out of almost anything you can wrap a rope around, it's not ...



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