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10

Filter the water right away, when filling the bottle. This way I'm sure the water inside the bottle is safe for drinking. This. Why? The main point for me is accessibility of that water. If you come to a situation where you need fresh water, then it may not just be because you've set up camp, you've got a while to spare and you feel like a drink. It ...


10

Whatever you do, DO NOT DRINK URINE. People who suggest this, including a example I saw on a survival show, are just plain wrong. The job of your kidneys is to take out the trash. This trash is in the form of various chemicals that are biproducts of other parts of the body doing their jobs. Energy is delivered to cells chemically. Cells take in ...


9

The general guideline for tornado safety is to get as low to the ground as possible and assume the tornado safety crouch: Wind speeds will be slower close to the ground, you are less likely to be hit by a flying object, and are less of a target for lightning strikes. In the same vein, it is best to avoid stands of trees if possible because the risk of ...


7

Urine has been a very helpful substance in most rural part of Africa. In case you find your way in Africa or on a tour or aid programme. In Africa, people(Mostly elderly people) who cant afford testing of their sugar level in a hospital use Urine to know their sugar level and chances of having diabetes. What they Do Ants are known for their like for ...


6

There are many if you can adjust with smell and fact that you are going to need to use your own urine for some or the other purpose. Hydrate using Urine: When you are damn far away from any water source and going through serius dehydration, You distill your urine if you can light a fire and have two makeshift containers, some kind of tube, and something to ...


5

According to this entry in the Swedish wiki, flour made out of pine bark contains about 82kcal/100g, or 400 kcal/pound (thanks to a comment). This flour is not made of the bark itself, but the thin layer between the bark and the wood. It is harvested in the spring when rising sap makes it come of rather easily. To make it into flour you have to dry it, ...


4

I cannot say if there are standard signals between mountaineers, however from hiking I know the following three light signals are used: Warning: Wave the flashlight back and forth to signal a warning to those around you. Use this signal when you spot a potential danger such as a wild animal, steep cliff or unsafe terrain. OK:Point your flashlight toward ...


4

Store your sandals or boots on the hip belt of your pack, while walking barefoot. Hook small items to your pants belt rings - while camping or in the city. Hook the nylon pouch, used to collect rubbish, to a tree branch (no one will step in it). Secure your travel mug to the exterior of the backpack for easy access and "mountain guy" look.


4

You touched on one thing: fires are often seasonal. Want to avoid fires in the Canadian Rockies? Come in the winter time. Want to risk smoke inhilation in the BC interior, come visit in August. Find out what the situation is in the area you are visiting, for the extent of your visit. Most parks have fire safety levels that clearly indicate weather the fire ...


4

Most probably the numbers were typo. There are numerous websites on pine tree bark eating. So far the best I found is this one from Survival Topics. I agree with the statement, this option should be an emergency option. The 2500 kcal requirement is more than the actual minimal need of energy per day. More like 1700-1800 given by the numbers of FAO research. ...


3

According to wildwoodsurvival, the sand helps remove suspended particles. Charcoal helps to remove chemical impurities. The charcoal plays the role of active carbon. The water filtration process use multiple materials, from coarse to fine, to prevent clogging. As a last stage, the charcoal can also help remove some bacterias. Note that the author of the ...


3

This doesn't really answer the question of how many calories per pound, but why eat the bark when the pine has so many good edible parts http://www.eattheweeds.com/pines-not-just-for-breakfast-anymore-2/


3

I don't have any good references for calorie expenditure, given that there are so many variables, so I will leave that to someone with a proper reference. In my personal experience in cold-weather, back country hiking and camping, the best time to wash is not at the end of a day's exertion when you are prone to getting chilled, but rather prior to starting ...


3

According to this article, Avijit Datta and Michael Tipton: Respiratory responses to cold water immersion: neural pathways, interactions, and clinical consequences awake and asleep, A fall in skin temperature elicits a powerful cardiorespiratory response, termed “cold shock,” comprising an initial gasp, hypertension, and hyperventilation despite a ...


3

Survival Spears Unless you plan to defend yourself from trees, I would focus more on the proper use of a spear fashioned from a knife. The factors that must be considered are: (1) solidly attaching the knife and (2) how to use a spear without breaking the tip. Attaching the Blade One of the best fastening methods involves rawhide strips that have been ...


3

This is the best way that I know of, courtesy of Field and Stream. The spear they made can be seen in the picture below. The guide I've linked is step-by-step. You could just tie the knife on, but there is a high chance of it slipping, especially if the stick you're using is smooth (like Bamboo) and the knife doesn't have a lanyard hole to secure the ...


3

The only way to judge the depth of water with any certainty is to get in it, swim around, and dive repeatedly to the bottom searching for objects (trees, boulders, the body of the last person who leaped before the looked.) Sure there may be ways that can help you estimate depths to degrees (see Rory's answer) but the odds you have a good visual on anything ...


3

Firstly, Bear Grylls is notorious for not doing things the way they look on television, but actually conducting extensive planning, multiple attempts, using alternative methods to get better camera angles, and in some instances, apparently going to stay in a hotel! But with regard to your question, there are a lot of things you can do to gain a good ...


3

This isn't a direct answer to the question, but I want to point out that most ordinary forest fires pose little danger to humans. It is the relatively unusual crown fires which can be very dangerous. In generally dry pine forests, like many parts of the western US, forest fire is a natural and relatively frequent (from the point of view of long-lived ...


3

Mountain distress signals vary slightly depending on what country your in. In the UK the general distress signal is to use a whistle (Alpine distress signal), not a torch. This is so it can be identified in poor visibility. Many backpacks come with a whistle integrated into the webbing, the bright orange bit below: It's usually 6 blasts of a whistle at ...


2

I use a Sawyer Squeeze filter and its pretty quick, light, and easy. You fill up a pouch that looks like a big Capri Sun and then just squeeze it out through the filter into your bottle or bladder. It comes with both a filter cap and a regular bottle cap, so if you were in a hurry you could fill the pouch at the water source, cap it, and filter it later. ...


2

You can shoot a human in self defense, so don't worry about shooting a bear if you have to. I have UK military experience, and let me tell you, shooting a moving target with a handgun is difficult. If a 400kg bear is coming at you, and you only have 5 seconds to get an accurate shot away with all the adrenalin flowing, then chances are you will not stop the ...


2

I have successfully made friction fires before, and it is possible. That said, it is not easy. I would reccomend leaning the bow drill. Use basswood, western red/eastern white cedars, poplar or cottonwood, among others. It is easier than other methods, but still requires a lot of practice. When I was learning the hand drill, I practiced EVERY DAY before I ...


2

Up in the wilds of Sweden I'd go for reindeer rather than moose. Lot easier to drag back to camp. Problem with living off the land is there are lots of things in the land that want to live off you. The reindeer will likely have worms, rodents are almost guaranteed to have some kind of parasites[1], occasionally rabies[2], and the smaller birds are simply ...


1

First thing you should do is confirm the validity of the news. Assuming that the news is genuine: Report your location to some one sitting out safe who can coordinate a rescue once it is all sorted out. If you are car-camping, take a measure if you can drive away before it hits. If you don't think you can, get away from Cars as soon as you can. If you ...


1

The tent and the canoe are both objects that can catch wind. Tornadoes can generate winds in excess of 200 MPH and can throw cars. You would want to avoid being in either. Securing as much gear as possible is good common sense, but think about your safety and the safety of your party first.


1

You could wet your clothes so that evaporation may help you cool a little in warm places such as deserts. Though this may be trivial.


1

I do believe cold-shock is a real threat, but the reaction is a combination of physical and psychological reactions. As being dropped in near freezing water is a horrendous experience, even for the more hardy of us. The mind goes into full panic, only wanting to get up out of the water, often flailing and thrashing to do so. The physical effect just pours ...


1

I am neither from Brazil nor experienced in primitive fire starting - nevertheless I will try to help. Find out what to use as tinder As mentioned, I don´t know a lot about Brazilian plants. Things I would try to light with matches to see how they burn before you go on a trip or get in a survival situation: Dry parts of cactus or, if they grow there, ...


1

The answer to your question is no. North America is a huge region. Even California is vast and varied, e.g., we have miner's lettuce at low elevations, but not higher up. For a given subregion, e.g., low altitudes in the Transverse Ranges of California, it's fairly easy to learn enough to identify a few trail snacks that might (or might not) be available. ...



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