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17

It's probably worth pointing out that a lot of people reading this question may be thinking along the (commonly quoted) line that about 80% of body heat is lost through the head - which is much more of a myth than people realise (See here for details.) From what I remember, it was an experiment done with people fully kitted out apart from the fact that they ...


14

Some, not all, do indeed come in two sides, and which one you use depends on the reason you use it. One of the sides strongly reflects heat. A hypothermic person therefore wants to have that reflective side on the inside so that it helps keeping any warmth inside. A person suffering from heat stroke wants the reflective side outside so that heat is kept away ...


13

Yaktrax advertises products intended to help with this, which might be less damaging to interior surfaces than crampons. You can find some SE discussion on those kinds of products here. Keeping a low center of gravity can reduce probability of injury by reducing how far you fall. Positioning yourself so that if you do fall, a softer part of your body ...


13

Heat loss can occur from anywhere on the body through a number of processes: Conduction e.g. when sitting on the ground. Convection e.g. due to wind chill. Radiation i.e. heat loss direct to the environment from exposed skin. Evaporation i.e. heat loss through perspiration. Other factors: Metabolism generates heat; conversely, without enough sustenance ...


11

My original answer to this question sparked a surprisingly intense debate, so I'm rewriting it to clarify a few points and offer a more holistic answer. Let me start by saying that every square inch of skin on the human body is capable of allowing heat to escape. That is to say, if you wear a jacket with no pants, your legs will lose more heat than your ...


10

Your body heat is reflected back at you from the shiny silver side. One of the reasons some blankets have two colors is so people would realize there was a correct side to get the most benefit. The other is that the "wrong side" color choice can be an aid in some signaling situations. Even when they are silver on both sides, there is often one side ...


9

The temperature within the cave is almost constant whatever the current surface temperature is. Once well away from surface influences, i.e., not near an entrance or another close connection to the surface, where air movements can influence the temperature, caves are usually at the same temperature (or very close) as the annual average temperature for the ...


8

a two layer winter hat to protect your ears a good winter jacket (long enough) supporting -40ºC (-40ºF) winter boots a two layer gloves a scarf For the intermediate layer: The key point is to not sweat. Depending on your body, you should choose the appropriate "heat level" intermediate layer. Some shops will have different categories from very cool to ...


7

The answer might be already hidden in the answer to this question: In the US, there seems to be no standardized norm for sleeping bags, i.e. every manufacturer can write onto the label whatever they want – which can be more or less realistic... Basically this means that they will possibly write the most impressive number onto the label they think they can ...


7

Wind chill factors verge on being junk science, especially when interpreted uncritically. However, your physical intuition does make sense, and published formulas and tables do have a property very much like the one you have in mind: as the wind speed increases, the incremental effect of adding a given amount to the wind speed gets smaller and smaller. For ...


7

Of course. You can (almost) always cool down a 4-season tent, but you can't very well protect a 2-season tent from a blizzard. The primary concern is weight, but if you're going to be camping near a glacier with -5°C winds, you'll want a sturdy tent, so that's going to come at a certain cost of weight. To keep a tent cooler, you can pitch it in the ...


7

Personally, I would use a wind chill chart, e.g this keyring compass includes a wind chill chart that would be easy to carry. It's still not going to be accurate, but it would provide a guide when you have nothing better. Take a look at the Wikipedia page on wind chill, the calculations look a bit "frightening" - not something I would like to do in my head. ...


7

This actually happens to be pretty relevant to Physics(so it's kind of odd it was migrated away from the Physics.SE). You were actually on the right track with the penguin idea and increasing your co-efficient of friction. The graphic in this article has been floating around the internet for a while now. It's pretty self-explanatory, but the gist of it is ...


7

Here at south Russia, we have lots of ice surfaces every winter and need to walk around. So, practical experience: The simplest option to reduce slipping will be to just glue some hard waterproof low-grit (approx 60-120 grit) sanding paper on the bottom of your shoes. This is often used here amongst aging people that are less agile due to their age. If ...


6

The key to cold weather clothing is viewing it as a system. The base layer of the system wicks moisture from the body and provides a small amount of insulation. The middle layer(s) of the system provide warmth and wind protection. The outer layer provides protection from the elements. That being said, a proven system for the temperature range you're ...


6

Are rubber soles the best alternative to heavy boots, or has anyone found another material that maximises friction with the ice? Rubber soles will have zero effect on ice. You need something that will dig into the ice to stop you slipping, rubber suffers from the same issues as any other material, it simply cannot get enough traction on the ice. ...


6

Well... a 4 season tent is a 4 season tent... You can use it during the whole year without any problems while a 2 season tent might not be as pleasant during the winter. I receive questions like this all the time. "What sort of boot should I get?", Packs, tents... My answer is kind of consistent for most of them... You buy gear for what you are going to use ...


5

There is no such place. 40-60°F is a very narrow range. 20°F can be just from day and night variation, which leaves basically nothing for seasonal variation. Even if you meant daytime highs, I still don't think there is any place on earth that fits this description, let alone anywhere in the US. Let's flip this around and think of what would make ...


5

There's a lot that you can do in regards to walking style: Avoid walking on the ice if you can. (if it's a poorly cleared sidewalk, and there's snow on grass near it, walk in the snow) If it's a layer of ice over a base of snow, crack the ice by walking heel first (and really put your weight into it), so that you create footprints in the snow rather than ...


4

No there is no limit to the math of wind chill, though there is a maximum wind speed that has ever been observed. Here is what wind chill is. Imagine you have a hot cup of coffee. You can leave it at room temperature for a while and it will cool down to where you can drink it. Or, you can put it in the fridge and it will cool faster. Or put it in the ...


4

here is a pictorial answer to try and figure this out! I believe this is a un-clothed male under a thermal camera (SFW)


4

There are two problems with this question: Night-time temperatures vary a great deal across Spain-it is a big country, with coasts, plains and mountains Your ideal temperature may be very different to mine So what you want to do is look at the range of expected temperatures in the area you plan to camp, compare those with temperatures you are comfortable ...


4

I think the answer is highly personal, as an avid coffee-drinker, hot is for me what scalding might be for someone else. But if I am to give some kind of benchmark, I would say 45°C is a pretty good temperature to aim for. Not as hot as to scald your mouth, but hot enough to give you some warmth if drank in sufficient quantities. But if you want to carry ...


4

This question has been answered already, but this problem interested me and I thought I'd share for future readers what I found by playing around with it. The North American Wind Chill Index as presented by NOAA here is based on the formula (itself an approximation), The chart applies to temperatures T from 40F to -45F and wind speeds 5mph to 60mph, and ...


3

Relative humidity is doing to be a big factor here, both on the too wet and too dry sides. Staying warm is generally not something you want to try to do "by the numbers". If you're out in the cold and wind, you need to pay attention to the feedback your body is giving you about the conditions you are in. Pay attention for the signs of hypothermia, ...


3

Your understanding of wind-chill is a bit confused. The reason the wind feels colder is because of convective heat transfer. When there is a difference in temperature between two objects, thermal energy transfers from the hot to the cold. In the case of a person in the air, the thermal energy flows into the air, and the faster the air is moving, the more ...


3

I don't think you will get consistent 40-60 daytime highs (what I assumed you meant) anywhere that isn't moderated by the ocean. However Fiasco is correct: The Olympic Penninsula around Sequim is very close. Summer temps are cool enough that tomatoes won't rippen outside of a greenhouse. Winter has frosts, but not consitently. The mountains nearby get ...


3

Many 4-season tents cannot be ventilated as well as tents made for summer conditions. Also, they tend to be larger. this means, you can use them, but it won´t be ideal. This differs a lot with the actual models you are comparing, some might be well suited for all conditions. Note that the temperature difference between summer and winter trips normally has ...


3

Approaching this from a physics standpoint, the primary reason people slip on ice is due to low friction. I personally think this is not the case, but rather, the low friction is the gunpowder to the bullet that is sliding, but the trigger is not the low friction. The real trigger (in my opinion of course) is force. It is impossible to move without force, ...


3

If your aim is just to avoid falling, do as WBT suggests and get some ice-grips. These can be put on and removed in seconds and can be carried in a small bag or even a pocket. But if you get UK-type weather, in which ice is often patchy, avoid grips that use what look like steel springs. These are easily broken on hard surfaces like pavement. Better ...



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