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20

You could use Naismith's rule which goes as follows: Allow 1 hour for every 3 miles (5 km) forward, plus 1 hour for every 2000 feet (600 metres) of ascent. A lot of hikers in the UK use this as a guide of course bear in mind terrain and altitude! and of course this is not appropriate at higher altitudes. Some sites recommend corrections to the above: ...


11

Another way to find the time is to use well known stars. In the northern hemisphere, you can use the Pole Star and the Big Dipper to tell the time fairly accurately. A good explanation of the procedure can be found here. Here is a abbreviated quote from that site : Find the Big Dipper in the Northern sky. Imagine one big hour-hand on a clock, which ...


10

An astronomer with a protractor and pocket-calculator can figure almost anything. Unfortunately, though, astronomers don't fit very well in survival kits (and grumble when you try to stuff them in there). So normal people are handicapped, for sure, but we can still say some basic things. A full moon is opposite the sun, so if you know it's a full moon ...


7

There's no general rule of thumb that I know of... I lied, there is Naismith's formula as correctly cited in another answer. I just tend to stay away from it because more often than not I find it better to make a judgement on the individual situation. There's so much variation the "average" would almost always be wrong in any specific case! It depends on ...


4

There is really only one way to determine this, and that is experience. Do a few hikes in different terrain, different settings (dayhike vs overnight), different weather and different group sizes, keep track of your time and thus build up a "library" of situations and times. Once you have a few of these reference hikes, you can then apply these to new ...


2

Naismith's rule is a good starting point, but it doesn't really cover unusual trail conditions. My rule of thumb is to convert distance, elevation, and trail condition to "equivalent miles": Each mile is a mile. Each 500 feet of elevation gain is a mile. Distance traveled on snow or loose rock counts double. Distance traveled above 7000 feet elevation ...


2

If you want an exact answer, there is not and will not be one until about 15 seconds after you finish walking the walk. For a decent ballpark, I was taught in scouts: day hiking: 3 miles per hour, + 1 hour for every 1000 feet of elevation climb. backpacking: 2 miles per hour, +1 hour for every 1000 feet of elevation climb. Use the formula, and then take a ...


1

Last year I was taught an approximation by a mountaineer guide. It is an average and worked quite well for me. Of course you need adaption for alpine tours (3000m+), physical condition, weather, extremely rough paths and so on. The rule is: 4km per hour on a flat path 400m altitude per hour take the so calculated longer time and add the half of the ...



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