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Naismith's rule is a good starting point, but it doesn't really cover unusual trail conditions. My rule of thumb is to convert distance, elevation, and trail condition to "equivalent miles": Each mile is a mile. Each 500 feet of elevation gain is a mile. Distance traveled on snow or loose rock counts double. Distance traveled above 7000 feet elevation ...


Last year I was taught an approximation by a mountaineer guide. It is an average and worked quite well for me. Of course you need adaption for alpine tours (3000m+), physical condition, weather, extremely rough paths and so on. The rule is: 4km per hour on a flat path 400m altitude per hour take the so calculated longer time and add the half of the ...

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