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15

A carabiner is designed to be loaded only along the long axis, near the spine (leftmost figure below). It will be weaker in any other direction of stress. Primary long-axis strength should be marked on the carabiner spine with an up-down arrow symbol, and is typically given in kilo-Newtons (one kN equals approximately 225 pounds of force). Cross-loading ...


14

First - Please do not only rely on answers in this site for creating top rope anchors. This is something that your life depends on, or the life of someone you care about, take it seriously. Seek the advice of an expert in person: At the local climbing gym, or guiding service. Creating climbing anchors is not something you learn simply by reading, you must ...


12

Top Roping: Top roping has an anchor at the top of the climb. The rope goes from the belayer at the bottom, all the way up to the top, through the anchor, and back down to the climber. If the climber falls, he or she only falls they only drop a little bit, provided the belayer has taken up all the slack. Additionally, the belayer pulls the rope up and ...


12

This may speak to some of your concerns: American Safe Climbing Association The American Safe Climbing Association publishes guidelines for safe bolting. Their stuff usually targets the people who are actually doing the bolting, but can be worth reading for general purposes. They have articles on how to tell which bolts are good and which are bad. And ...


12

Like with most climbing related questions, I personally find it hard to give a definitive rule that applies to all circumstances. There are a couple of safety factors to consider, as well as the perception of the climber. Don't venture out on your own if any of the following doesn't seem intuitive to you. Keep in mind the following: Rope stretch: Rope ...


9

The Ethic So, the ethic among experienced climbers is to not toprope on the base of a popular multipitch route. In addition to the safety issues you point out, its just not fair to the people who invested the time to learn to lead. Especially not a destination place like Yosemite Valley where people may have traveled a long way to get there. You say this ...


8

With due respect to Ben Crowell, who is I believe a far more experienced outdoorsman than I am, I beg to differ with his answer. (Edit: prior to revision that is.) Having worked at a very small climbing wall I have seen tough ropes completely worn out by top-rope climbing alone, therefore at least in the extreme "Ropes don't become weak from top-roping or ...


7

It represents a two major things. I'm not going to illustrate, but the core of it is: Don't load carabiners across the gate or spine side of the carbiner (i.e. the side opposite the gate). This is pretty obvious, but happens sometimes when you make an anchor or whip out a quick draw and then load it without getting all the carabiners in-line with the ...


6

In addition to what David mentioned, their are area specific concerns and, specific ways to check bolts in those areas. Most of the time the generic advice will be useful, but please make sure you speak with climbers familiar with the area you're going to understand about possible bolting problem. Also climbing guides usually contain this information, but ...


5

Rule number one: Assume that one piece of your equipment will break, there must be redundancy right up to the rope. At least two, preferably three, independent anchors should go to two opposing locked carabiners. As for what to anchor to, if there's a bolted anchor that looks good, use it (but even then, not as the only anchor). If not, I've always found ...


5

This question has some information about when to retire a rope. The core of a rope doesn't become weak from top-roping or from sustaining lead falls with a small fall factor. It becomes weak from sustaining multiple lead falls with very large fall factors, approaching 2. The only way to get a fall factor greater than 1 is if you fall past your belay station ...


4

It's a bit of both. Security When toproping, an experienced belayer should have the necessary training to adjust slack/tension depending on the route itself. For example, to avoid any swings that would crash the climber into the rock. There are many examples on safety-related criteria for determining tension (safety for both the climber and the belayer), ...


4

You should not use a toothed ascender as a fall can sever the rope. Additionally these devices are typically not usable for decent therefore additional equipment is required anyway. Section 6 of this report has testing of fall-arrest devices: Lyon Equipment Limited - Industrial rope access


2

There is no definitive answer. To quote Petzl "It must be understood that all systems are flawed, because this means there is a risk, however minor." http://www.petzl.com/en/outdoor/product-experience/self-belay-solo-climbing/introduction


2

It depends. If you're in a climbing gym, or some scenario where you're belaying someone on toprope on a route that's less than 50' tall, runs straight up-and-down ( so there's no chance for the climber to swing dangerously), or crash into a ledge then the exact amount of tension is somewhat of a personal preference for the climber. The belayer should ...


1

I use a Petzl shunt: http://www.petzl.com/en/outdoor/multi-purpose-ascenders/shunt As noted by others, self-belay is always going to carry risks - the shunt has a smooth camming surface so is rope friendly, and hopefully with top-roping you are going to have very limited impact on a fall. The shunt is used by a number of pro-climbers to help them when ...


1

The Petzl mini/micro-traxion are what most people seem to use. Outdoor gear lab did a recent comparison with a few other devices. I've also seen Gri-Gris used for that purpose, though it's obviously not recommended by the manufacturer.



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