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9

Yes, the R-value will add of your different layers. If you wear layer A with R=5 and layer B with R=2.5, the overall insulation value will be R=7.5. To explain this a bit, we think of two layers or flat walls which interact only due to thermal conduction. This is just a model and in reality other effects will come in play. The Fourier Law for thermal ...


7

There's not yet a good answer that asks for the reason the fingers, toes (and nose and ears) are cold, so let me add a few points: (I'm assuming around 0°C according to the question - of course, -40 °C is different). Here are a couple of reasons why your fingers and toes get cold in the first place: Of course, you may not yet be used to the cold ...


5

Bivying used to be regarded as a desperate act that you'd do in an emergency. In these circumstances a large polythene bag would serve as a make do shelter. Very cheap simple and pretty awful. In more recent years bivying has become more widespread in the outdoor adventure arena and purpose built kit is now available. A comfortable bivy is a fine art that ...


4

Whoever told you C1 are aimed at 'more advanced users' than C2 is plain wrong. Crampon grades are really about where and how you plan to use them, rather than how good you are. Here's a typically thorough and useful article by Andy Kirkpatrick, here: http://www.andy-kirkpatrick.com/articles/view/getting_the_right_crampon Also, the BMC have some good ...


4

It's good for a question on SE to be focused. However, there is a broader context here, which is that you want your activities to be (a) safe and (b) comfortable and enjoyable, so that you'll want to continue doing winter mountaineering rather than letting your crampons gather dust in a closet. In this context, the exact choice of crampons is a relatively ...


4

One problem with hemp compared to wool is how it conducts heat when it is wet. Wet hemp conducts heat very well when wet which means your feet could get freezing cold. Wet wool is a poor heat conductor so even if wet they will not be as cold.


4

-20 celsius is not particularly cold, but 3 weeks summer hiking experience is not particularly helpful. You might not kill yourself, but you probably won't thank yourself, either.


4

If you are going to alpine area, your most important concern has to be security. Even with best equipment, knowledge about the dangers and how to avoid them is far more important. As you specifically asked for equipment, I will address these points. The only way I know of to spend a cold winter night comfortable is in some sort of a snow cave. There are ...


3

Swinging your arms and legs to move blood to your extremities is good advice and will overcome your body's vasoconstriction response, but keep in mind you should also layer up after doing this since you are driving heat energy away from your core. If you are in camp, drinking a hot beverage (and also holding it while you drink) will warm your core and ease ...


3

Coming from an "enjoying nature" perspective, the equation becomes more simple in my estimation. If the trail can be expected to be reasonably well packed down, boots are perfect, traction cleats can be slipped onto boots if the hike is especially steep or slick. If the trail is expected to be deep powder, not hard pack snow.. snow shoes are easily the best ...


3

Postholing is more of an etiquette thing. On popular snowshoeing routes when people posthole thru a trail the make a thin deep canyon of snow. This makes it difficult for snowshoers to get nice flat sections to hike on. After the holes get covered by fresh snow, these holes become a mine field for people on snowshoes..


2

Like already mentioned in other replies, it depends were you are and the weather changes. I'm working on a bear project in the Canadian Rockies and we know the bears can be active until January. They should be in there den until April, but there are exceptions. We always take bear spray with us during winter fieldwork.


2

I can't recommend Hempsocks, except you use them as second socks to reduce friction. They're very durable but not comfortable to wear. A good alternative to Merinowool is Bamboo, it's also very smooth and dries very quick. So in short, hemp is good to protect your socks or reduce friction because it's a very cheap and durable material, doesn't cost much - ...


2

According to wikipedia2 In calculating the R-value of a multi-layered installation, the R-values of the individual layers are added. I would imagine a slight diminishing return as the r-value is a laboratory measurement in ideal condition which is not quite the same as on the field (variable temperatures, moisture, air movement, etc.).


1

and are there other textiles that can work? One option is of course polypropylene, it is hydrophobic (unlike most other materials used in clothing) and has a lower thermal conductivity than wool - this does not mean better insulation, but it is a safe bet it can perform fairly well over natural fibres and is fairly cheap. You may see these as liners to ...


1

You can sit on your hands or cross your arms over your chest, clench a fist, and pump your muscles. Secondly heat up for core muscles (abdomen, chest, thighs). Increasing your core temp will promote better heat circulation. Inturn, gulp down near hot cup of water, eat soup, take a hot bath. Doing so will keep you warm for a good while.



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