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7

Yes, the R-value will add of your different layers. If you wear layer A with R=5 and layer B with R=2.5, the overall insulation value will be R=7.5. To explain this a bit, we think of two layers or flat walls which interact only due to thermal conduction. This is just a model and in reality other effects will come in play. The Fourier Law for thermal ...


6

I believe that you should prepare with some additional first layers, bringing more socks is not a bad idea since you will be walking quite a bit (I assume). Otherwise I would focus some on bringing a little extra protection, in form of a scarf, fleece cap and a pair of gloves. Winter is a unforgiving time of year and you need to plan your clothing with ...


6

There's not yet a good answer that asks for the reason the fingers, toes (and nose and ears) are cold, so let me add a few points: (I'm assuming around 0°C according to the question - of course, -40 °C is different). Here are a couple of reasons why your fingers and toes get cold in the first place: Of course, you may not yet be used to the cold ...


5

I've only once experienced a nights' sleep that my sleeping bag didn't handle. I was only 200 metre from civilisation, and I hardly slept, but it was not really dangerous. I'd expected temperatures around 0°C, but it turned out to be the local coldest night of the year at -7°C. Normally, the gulf stream means that at Å i Lofoten, Norway, temperatures ...


4

It is worth nothing that if you have a cooking system and the extra fuel you can prepare hot water and place the hot water bottle between your legs to help you keep warm. If you have extra food, eat a high-energy snack before going to bed. Other things that comes to mind are: cover your head, use what you can as bottom insulation, make sure you don't ...


4

Whoever told you C1 are aimed at 'more advanced users' than C2 is plain wrong. Crampon grades are really about where and how you plan to use them, rather than how good you are. Here's a typically thorough and useful article by Andy Kirkpatrick, here: http://www.andy-kirkpatrick.com/articles/view/getting_the_right_crampon Also, the BMC have some good ...


4

It's good for a question on SE to be focused. However, there is a broader context here, which is that you want your activities to be (a) safe and (b) comfortable and enjoyable, so that you'll want to continue doing winter mountaineering rather than letting your crampons gather dust in a closet. In this context, the exact choice of crampons is a relatively ...


3

There is at least one option from Ferrino, but I am sure there are more from "mountain" brands. Maybe you should stop looking for "4 season" and start looking for extreme/mountaineering/alpinism solutions, because high mountain expeditions usually imply low temperatures and high winds. But make sure you the tent is not an "emergency" tent. However you are ...


3

Swinging your arms and legs to move blood to your extremities is good advice and will overcome your body's vasoconstriction response, but keep in mind you should also layer up after doing this since you are driving heat energy away from your core. If you are in camp, drinking a hot beverage (and also holding it while you drink) will warm your core and ease ...


3

People falling asleep and dying were already affected by hypothermia, once it happens to you, the only chance is a heat source such as fire or other people, however if you are alone, you will have really problems with making fire in such condition. If your body isn't completely exhausted, you will have great problems falling asleep, if you will be freezing. ...


3

Coming from an "enjoying nature" perspective, the equation becomes more simple in my estimation. If the trail can be expected to be reasonably well packed down, boots are perfect, traction cleats can be slipped onto boots if the hike is especially steep or slick. If the trail is expected to be deep powder, not hard pack snow.. snow shoes are easily the best ...


3

Postholing is more of an etiquette thing. On popular snowshoeing routes when people posthole thru a trail the make a thin deep canyon of snow. This makes it difficult for snowshoers to get nice flat sections to hike on. After the holes get covered by fresh snow, these holes become a mine field for people on snowshoes..


3

What sort of snow conditions are you running in? For dry, powdery snow, the best option is a pair running shoes that have aggressive tread (search for "trail running shoes"), but in wet, icy snow, metal screws or spikes will give you the extra grip you're looking for. I can't think of anything that will help more than it will hurt on icy pavement other than ...


2

According to wikipedia2 In calculating the R-value of a multi-layered installation, the R-values of the individual layers are added. I would imagine a slight diminishing return as the r-value is a laboratory measurement in ideal condition which is not quite the same as on the field (variable temperatures, moisture, air movement, etc.).


2

Like already mentioned in other replies, it depends were you are and the weather changes. I'm working on a bear project in the Canadian Rockies and we know the bears can be active until January. They should be in there den until April, but there are exceptions. We always take bear spray with us during winter fieldwork.


2

I can't recommend Hempsocks, except you use them as second socks to reduce friction. They're very durable but not comfortable to wear. A good alternative to Merinowool is Bamboo, it's also very smooth and dries very quick. So in short, hemp is good to protect your socks or reduce friction because it's a very cheap and durable material, doesn't cost much - ...


1

and are there other textiles that can work? One option is of course polypropylene, it is hydrophobic (unlike most other materials used in clothing) and has a lower thermal conductivity than wool - this does not mean better insulation, but it is a safe bet it can perform fairly well over natural fibres and is fairly cheap. You may see these as liners to ...


1

The only retail folding skis are from Mountain Approach, and they are touring skis with skins permanently attached, so are more of a snowshoe than a ski, and only really for going uphill in the back country (you fold them up when you summit and then snowboard down). As for short cross-country skis, there was a fad in the mid-late 90s when 145cm skis became ...


1

You can sit on your hands or cross your arms over your chest, clench a fist, and pump your muscles. Secondly heat up for core muscles (abdomen, chest, thighs). Increasing your core temp will promote better heat circulation. Inturn, gulp down near hot cup of water, eat soup, take a hot bath. Doing so will keep you warm for a good while.



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