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1

I've never been to RMNP in the winter, so this is a wild guess. I'm assuming the higher elevation roads will all be closed. Look into how far you can drive up Fall River Road. If I remember right, it's about 10 miles long. The eastern 3/4 or so goes up a valley. While there is certainly elevation gain, it doesn't sound like what you are looking for. ...


1

Electrolytes You can use an electrolyte solution in your water. Many do this for obvious other reasons but it will reduce the freezing point in the water. I'm sure you've seen the various powders at health food or supplement stores. I wish I had a good citation but sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl−), hydrogen ...


4

There are two natural options; none of them is quite pleasant. Alcohol Per Wikipedia, 8.5 vol% of ethanol make the freezing point drop to -3C (26.6F) (more values at at Wikipedia, also a diagram is available below). Most of the ethanol will be evaporized during cooking, so it's not that much an issue; also 14 vol% is only 6.8 wt%, so the added weight is ...


3

Propylene glycol is allowed in alcoholic beverages up to 5%, and this would get you to about 29°F. You could probably throw in a little sugar, salt and good old ethanol to kick it down further. Really, nearly any solute will push down the freezing point. Maybe some salty chicken bullion, plus alcohol just to keep it from rotting. This is starting to sound ...


6

It's pretty easy to keep your water from freezing without adding anything to it, actually. If you keep it under your shell, your body heat will keep it from freezing. If you bury it under a foot or so of snow, it will stay liquid overnight (although you may get a little ice around the edges). If you boil it and put your hot water bottle in your sleeping bag, ...


8

This can be calculated using a property called cryoscopic constant Kf which links the concentration of a solved substance to the freezing point depression Td: Td = m * Kf where m is the molality which is the amount of mols of solved substance per kg of solvent (here water). For water Kf is 1.86K*kg/mol and the molar mass of sugar (sucrose) is 342g/mol. So ...


4

I think you're told (i.e. we're taught) not to run from wolves (they can out-run you). If I take my dog for a walk and we see a cat, then the dog's behaviour depends on the cat: If the cat stays where it is (watching the dog) then the dog walks past it If the cat runs away then the dog will chase it I think that the wolf will use your behaviour to ...


17

So, first of all there is no alpha male! An alpha male only exists in captive wolf packs but never ever in the wild. Further reading about this topic here for example. The pack you've encountered was a family of three (more likely in January) or two generations. The average pack consists of a family of 5–11 animals (1–2 adults, 3–6 juveniles and 1–3 ...



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