You're right that the various species of shorebirds, including in your area, like most of the same types of foods. The diet is primarily comprised of invertebrates such as crustaceans, worms, mollusks, and insects.
Although some species are indeed bigger, they tend to co-exist peacefully. One reason is that they have different types of bodies and bills, and are designed to eat at different depths, areas and locations. There's plenty of food to go around, and the birds know how to find it.
Sandpipers have long thin bills, which have what are called "tactile receptors" in the tip. This means that they feel their prey before seeing it. They open their bill a little before poking the water, effectively turning it into a forceps, which they use for pulling up food that's below the surface. Less frequently, they open their bill and run in shallow water, catching little fish along the way. Many shorebirds, including some sandpipers, have an ability to curl up only the front section of the top bill. This fascinating feature called Rhynchokinesis enables them to open wider to catch larger prey. Birds with varying degrees of it dig at deeper depths, which is one reason why there's no need to fight for food.
Plovers have shorter bills and better vision, so they use a run-stop-hunt feeding method similar to that seen in robins and other land birds. Plovers prefer to eat higher up on the beach. They enjoy finding small crustaceans tucked into pockets of seaweed which wash up with the tide, and are built to easily maneuver their way in and out of that. They also feed at the edge of dunes, tide pools, other sandy areas ignored by other shore birds, and even at the base of low-growing plants.
Although considered a shorebird, killdeer are the least frequent bird found at the water's edge, and don't get in the way of others who are eating. In fact, if you think you see a shore bird on the golf course or in an open field, it's likely to be a killdeer.
Source materials and further research:
Beach Birds of California
Western Snowy Plover Natural History
Sandpipers in Monterey California
Shorebirds in Northern California
Distal rhynchokinesis in Purple Sandpipers