The first picture is of spinners. you tow them though the water and they spin and sparkle, attracting the attention of predatory fish. Use these where you have good visibility in the water. The different sizes colours will depend on what fish you want to catch.
The second set are lures. Again designed to be pulled though the water but slower. these are designed to look like fish swiming. Again good visibility needed for these.
The above will only catch fish that are predatory. e.g. Pike
The third picture are floats. This is for a different type of fishing altogether. I.e. baited line fishing. The float is designed to sit in the water with a hook attached underneath with some bait on it. Best in calm water. Visibility less of an issue, the fish are attracted to the bait by smell mostly.
I'm not familiar with the Gulp worms. They appears to be some kind of artificial bait. You will likely want to use these with the floats, etc.
The above target fish that scavenge mostly rather than hunt actively. Though a degree of cross over is expected. i.e. trout
A degree of trail and error will likely be needed when you start out. It very much depends on local conditions, etc.