If climbing shoes are resoled, will they fit differently afterward? If so, in what way does it change (narrower, shorter, tighter, looser, etc..)?
I have had several shoes resoled, and each one fit pretty much just as they did before the resoling. No adjustments or breaking in necessary, as all the shoes were well seasoned, and the resoling had no perceptible effect on fit.
Not unless they did a really bad job.
Shoe size starts with the sole. It would be really hard to even sew in an upper to a wrong sized sole. If you told the cobbler you want less width they could stitch in a bit but not very much.
It will take a bit of time to break the sole in but not nearly as long as the original break in period.