The general question is not really answerable, but the specific question in regards to Mt Tapulao is answerable. The link you provided says that guides have been required since 2013. While I am not familiar with the quality and experience of guides in the Philippines, there are some questions you should ask the guide/company before hiring them. Relevant for your question is asking about equipment you need to bring for a day hike given your concerns about speed. You should also ask about what happens in an emergency, what gear the guides bring (or have access to) and fixed turn around times.
Given the description of the trail having a welcome center at the base, a bunk house an hour or so from the summit, multiple campsites, predominately along a former 4x4 road, and good cellphone coverage, I would assume the emergency plan is pretty solid. It is likely as simple as making a phone call for an ATV to come get you or for a bunch of guides/search and rescue to run up/down the trail.
The guides likely have some fixed turn around times (possibly modulated by weather) that assures, absent an emergency, that you get down before dark. If something happens and you are forced to spend an unplanned night the required equipment will likely be sufficient or the guide will again make a phone call and get the needed help.