Are there any specifics about how to differentiate a Pass and a Col in terms of mountaineering?
For non-mountaineering and non-geographical interests it's all the same.
Both words refer to the same topography, which is a saddle point. The land goes up in two opposite directions, and down in the two other opposite directions.
To me at least, a col is just this basic topography. However, a pass implies the saddle point is a reasonable travel connection between the two downhill directions. Since the two uphill directions of the saddle point form a ridge, a pass is a point that allows reasonable passage over that ridge.
So a pass is a col, but not all cols are passes.
Pass and col are synonymous. Col is French whereas the word pass has entered the Germanic languages (German word is Pass). The word col entered English usage because of anglophone mountaineers in the French Alps.
I personally think of it this way: Passes are less steeper, and are something which are/were used by people commuting for any reason for that matter. Whereas Cols are something which are comparatively steeper and there may or may not be an established walk-able path/trail through it.
Consequently, a Pass can definitely be approached from both the sides. Thats not always true/applicable to a Col.
A pass is a natural way or low point which facilitate moving across a mountain without clumbing its full height whereas a col is the lowest point of a mountain ridge between two peaks.
From my perspective a col is a dependent gap or linked space that divide the apex of a a hill while pass is a stretch of lowland dividing two independent or isolated hill. Its very possible for each of this two hill to have a col space dividing their apex!
I try to use some logics to define it:
A pass can always be a saddle, a col and a gap. But a gap, a saddle and a col aren't necessarily a pass.