As you can see from an answer to your other question, you cannot determine your global coordinates via a magnetic compass. Navigation, however, where you wish to use a compass to help you travel from one known global location to another, has been achieved as follows:
Using a Gnomonic map, plot a straight line connecting your "from" and "to" points. The Gnomic projection has the unique property that all great circle routes (i.e., shortest courses on a globe) project as straight lines, no matter what direction they have.
Carefully transfer the route from the Gnomonic map onto a Mercator map. Generally stated, your shortest route will plot as a curve. The Mercator projection has the unique property that all loxodromes – lines of constant azimuth (or bearing) – project as straight lines, no matter their initial directions. It also has the property that angles measured between lines on the map are correct.
Segmentize the curved route on the Mercator map. That is, approximate the curve via a sequence of straight lines. Each segment will have constant direction throughout its length.
For each segment, set a course for that segment and travel for the distance indicated by that segment. Note that each True course must be "corrected" for magnetic declination to get the Magnetic (compass) course. Also note that each measured map distance will need to be corrected for scale distortion and this is a mathematical function of latitude. While your overall line of travel will not be exactly the shortest route, it will always be following a set course.
The following example is from GeoGarage.com: First, the shortest route from Seattle to London on a Gnomonic map. Notice its direction changes throughout.
Now that same great circle route plotted as a curve on a Mercator map and, in this case, the curve has been "approximated" by only a single straight segment, representing a line of constant bearing.
Such has been the method of global map and compass navigation prior to the age of electronic instrumentation.