This depends enormously on landscape, weather, and infrastructure.
I grew up in The Netherlands several hundred meter from a motorway, but with good noise barriers, we heard almost nothing. My friend lives less than 100 metre from a noise-barriered motorway and it's nearly inaudible. Now I live several km from a motorway in England, without noise barriers. Depending on the weather, I either hear nothing at all or it's so annoying I can not stand being in my garden, and hear it even with the windows closed. I've been considering to buy a sound pressure level meter to compare my impression to something measurable and try to relate it to my circumstances. The quietest weather tends to be dense fog, when traffic is either crawling or stationary, both of which are sufficiently quiet several kms away.
If there's a hill between you and the road, or if the road is underground, you will hear (nearly) nothing even very close. But if the road is in a valley and you're up on the slope, you might hear it many kms away. I've been 10 km from roads and still found some heavy powerful lorries going uphill disturbing, but that on a mostly open landscape with at most small sub-Arctic mountain birch forest type trees.
In some countries there are interactive noise maps, such as this one for England. I found the value of this quite limited, as my personal experience is worse than this map claims for my area.
It also depends on the road, of course. Some roads have traffic all night, others become completely quiet.
Personally, my strategy if I'm near a road, is to seek out a sound I find pleasant rather than annoying: specifically, a stream or river. Those may drown out the road sound such that I can pretend to be in the wilderness rather than right next to a road.