I wanted to take a bow-hunter course (DBJV) following the guidelines provided by IBEP and EBF. However, all the regulations seem to be for compound bows. Is it even possible to take the exam with a recurve bow? If yes, where are the regulations for such written down?
yes, it is possible, at least for the Alabama curriculum it is. Alabama doesn't require the course, but other states do and you can take it online. The course specifically talks about recurves and longbows. Check you state laws concerning minimum poundage and equipment, and assuming the state your hunting in allows the weapon, give it a go.
You can see where it talks about 'traditional' archery stuff in the alabama study guide on this page: https://www.bowhunter-ed.com/alabama/studyGuide/The-Longbow/301002_776