Below a list of common camping fuels and their translated names.
Please do leave a comment and/or edit this answer if you think there are errors or if you can fill the gaps or provide more information.
Note that some of the listed substances are not frequently used as fuel, but I think listing them can be useful to avoid misunderstandings.
White Gas (US English)
- UK English: White Gas AKA Coleman fuel
- CAN English: Naphtha
- German: ?
- Austraila/New Zealand : White Spirit.
(Chemical Name Naphtha, 5-6 Carbon Atoms, Boiling point 30°C-90°C)
Propane/Butane/Isobutane Gas (universal)
- Propane/Butane/Isobutane are chemical compounds and as such the terms are more or less universally used in the same sense.
(Butane - 4 Carbon Atoms, Boiling point 0°C, (isoButane −11.7 °C )
Propane - 3 carbon, Boiling point -40°C)
Note that isobutane/propane mixtures are the most common fuel type for canister stoves (e.g., Jetboil stoves, MSR Pocket Rocket, Optimus Crux, Snow Peak GigaPower, ...). Most of these manufacturers also produce their own branded canisters (e.g., Jetboil's JetPower, MSR's IsoPro, Optimus's Energy Fuel, ...), which are generally interchangeable up to 1) form factor/sizing and 2) slight variations in the ratio of isobutane/propane. Some are even produced in the same factory and just branded differently. The two common outliers are Campingaz, which uses a clamping connection as opposed to the threaded connection of MSR/Jetboil/Optimus, and Coleman Propane Fuel (16oz green bottle) which has a much larger thread. In short, if it looks like it will attach to your canister stove and lists isobutane/propane as the contents, it should work.
Kerosene (US English)
- UK English: Paraffin
- German: Petroleum / Petrol / Lampenöl (lit. 'lamp oil')
- India: Kerosene
- Russia: Керосин
(10 - 16 Carbon atoms, boiling point 150-275°C )
Gasoline/Gas (US English)
- UK English: Petrol
- German: Benzin
- India: Petrol
- Russia: Бензин
(4-14 Carbon Atoms, Boiling point 85 °C )
(Denatured) Alcohol/Ethanol (US English)
- UK English: Meths / Methylated spirit(s)
- German: Brennspiritus
- French: alcool à brûler
- Swedish: Rödsprit
- Norwegian: Rødsprit
- Icelandic: Raudsprit
- Portuguese: álcool de queimar / álcool desnaturado / álcool 95%
- Dutch: spiritus
- India: spirit / alcohol
- Russia: спирт (rare according to this page)
(Mostly Ethanol ( C2H5OH ) with poisonous additives )
Methanol (US/Can English)
- Methyl alcohol
- Russia: метиловый спирт, метанол
Mineral Spirits (US/CAN English)
- UK English: White spirit
- AU/NZ English: Turpentine
- German: Terpentinersatz / Testbenzin
- India: Turpentine
- Russia: Уайт-спирит
(Organic made from Resins, mostly consists of Pinene, Boil point 155C. )