I can't specify beaches because I'm not in Europe, and I guess you don't want to be travelling all around the world looking for surf waves. It looks like you are after a shore break, but there are other possibilities like reef breaks.
However, there are some generalities that can be made about waves and beaches:
To get waves that are suitable for surfing you ideally want nice directional breaks that are at an angle to the beach and a consistent beach slope with not much interference from headlands and the like.
The size of waves depends on the wind, tide/water flow and beach slope (i.e. depth of water and rate of depth change). There are no guarantees that any particular beach will have waves of the right size at any given time because of the above factors, all have to come into play together to provide decent surf.
In general if you want big waves, you need to have what is known as fetch, the longer the fetch, the bigger the waves will be at the end as there is more distance for the water to be pushed by the wind. If you are planning a surfing trip, look at the isobaric map for the region you intend to visit and look for long straight lines parallel to each-other for long fetch (big waves - you want the opposite). The closer the lines are to each-other indicates how strong the wind will be along the fetch, so look for ones that are well spaced. In addition, you can look at the direction of the wind flow along the isobars - you need it pointing at an angle to the direction of the beach you will be surfing at, this will give you nice angled waves, that break along the beach, allowing you to follow one wave for some time rather than have all or most of the wave break at one time.
Tidal and water flows can cause the waves to change - if you surf on an out-going tide or near a rip-current/river mouth/anywhere the water flows away from the beach, then the waves will be steeper as the incoming wave pushes against the out-flowing water. This makes the waves higher and steeper, but also means they collapse more easily and with greater force, resulting in "dumping", particularly on steep beaches, where similar forces come into play, as I explain below...
Steep beaches create taller waves as the rate of change from deep water to shallow forces the wave to pile up (the water has to go somewhere, and it can't go into the ground, so it goes up!). These sorts of beaches are more likely to create tubes and other wave forms that surfers like, particularly tall glassy breakers, which can be surfed easily (you go faster when surfing, which makes it easier to surf), but it also means the waves are more powerful and break more abruptly if breaking directly towards the beach. Shallow beach slopes mean that the waves don't build up so high, and may never break (depending on wave size), just surge up on the slope and dissipate energy that way.
If the beach has an inconsistent slope the wave may break and then wash out or suddenly change behaviour as the slope changes. If there is a sand-bar (shallow patch, with a deeper area closer to shore), then the wave may break and then subside and re-break as it hits the true shore. Generally some of the energy of the wave will be lost on the first break and the in-shore bit will be gentler.
Headlands, reefs, islands and rocks all affect the wave shape too. These can create interference patterns in the waves, breaking them down in semi-predictable manners and creating dead spots (and high spots too) that will be un-surfable and interfere with your enjoyment if you get caught in one of these areas. You can surf the waves generated by reefs (e.g. Jaws in Hawaii - not one for beginners!) and islands with a bit of know-how, just as you might for a shore-break.
In my experience, you are best to have a look online and scout out an area before going there - the locals know where the best waves are, so head to the beach and see where all the surfers are in the water. As you are after beginner waves, look for beaches that offer surfing courses, they will often have consistent waves of a smallish size, but there are no guarantees.