This touches quite a lot of different dimensions so it will be hard to answer everything in a single post.
One of the appeals of climbing outdoors is that it is outdoors. Consider a nice sunny day in spring. Would you rather climb in a crowded, loud and dusty gym without much daylight or outside in the warm sun? For me, the choice is quite clear. (This is slightly idealizing outdoor climbing as it an be crowded as well and the weather is not always that nice ;))
Another important aspect is diversity. Going to the climbing gym 2-3 times a week turns the gym routes stale after like 3 weeks as you will have done all routes that are doable in few tries and only few routes remain that are doable but not yet done. Therefore a lot of the gym climbing consists of repeating routes I already have done. Outdoors there is a lot more routes to be climbed. In the nearby Donautal crag there is still quite a number of sectors I have not even tried to climb after years.
Diversity does not only affect the number of routes but also the style of climbing. Gym climbing is mostly about face climbing on vertical and overhanging walls on holds sticking out of the wall. This means that you can almost always step a handhold (although these modern dual texture holds change this a bit). Outdoors you often have negative holds (holes in the wall) that you cannot step well. Outdoors there is not only face climbing but also styles like crack and slab climbing which are rarely available in climbing gyms. (I am aware that there are slabs in almost any gym and some gyms have cracks but they are still only a very poor approximation of outdoor slabs or cracks)
Another aspect of climbing outside is adventure. This is not so present in sport climbing but in alpine climbing. Finding your route through a wall hundreds of meters high is quite exiting for me. I definitely prefer climbing a lower grade on poorer protection over climbing at the very limit in well protected climbs. This is just about knowing with 100% certainty that you can do the moves, that you can reverse them if needed and you can do them even in poor conditions (especially relevant for alpinism).
Even if you don't like it dangerous, climbing outside can be an adventure by doing a sport climbing trip to southern France, going camping, etc. Discovering new beautiful regions is one aspect of going climbing outside.
On the matter of time invested, of course a climbing gym wins mostly, as long as you live close to one. However, if you are living at a good place, you can reach a lot of outdoor crags within 1h of driving and less than 30 minutes of walking. Considering that going to the gym is about 25 minutes for me, this is not so much worse and definitely something suitable for the weekend.
All in all, the question of indoor and outdoor climbing is not about what is better. Each has their advantages and disadvantages and they are a great complement to each other. I can only recommend a pure gym climber to try climbing outdoors. If you don't like it, no problem.