I attempted to patch a leak on my air mattress using pieces of an old mattress and super glue. It didn't hold still leaking air but in my effort to fix leak I probably got 3 separate patches and an entire tube of super glue on there. How do I get the non working patch off so it can be fixed I can't just keep trying to add another patch or can i
Superglue is depolymerised by acetone. That means (most) nail polish remover will take it off. Whether you air mattress can handle acetone is another matter. Some plastics can, others can't. I suggest you find an area where damage won't be too much of a problem and experiment (perhaps there's a flap over the valve, or an edge of a seam). The cotton flocked materials will need longer testing as it's the underlying airtight fabric that you need to test. A few minutes soaking should do the trick, but for a big patch you may need to gently peel the patch every few minutes to let the acetone get underneath. As the acetone evaporates it will give you something close to superglue again, so dispose promptly and carefully, and avoiding breathing the fumes.
Alternatively, superglue doesn't stand up well to very hot water. If you can arrange things so that you can get it immersed in gently simmering water, the patch should come off in a few minutes. Again, this may not be suitable for the fabric, and testing may be harder.
Note that testing on a spare patch isn't completely without risk: they're not necessarily the same material.