All other answers assume that you want to use spinning reel and lure as your tackle, but it is also possible to catch pike on the fly. It is indeed a lot of fun, as you can check out from this video filmed in Sweden. At around 15 minutes they show how they set the tackle.
In answer to your questions, here is how I would go with a fly rod after pike:
a) I would use a heavier rod (at least 7 or 8 wt) with appropriate line (at least 7 or 8 wt). Not only to be able to fight the big pike, but also because you can cast bigger flies on windy days with them.
b) I would use bigger streamer flies with lots of flash. Anything tied to hooks size 4 to 6/o would be nice. Minnow imitations (common roach/mört is the usual food for pike in most Swedish waters) work well. For those, white streamers with flash to them work nice. Perch imitations also work great, and I think that flies with green, yellow, and red patterns can match those.
c) You want to have a line that matches your rod (at least 7 or 8wt), and a floating line or sink tip would do. You will mostly be casting towards banks and the weeds, so a full sinking line will not help you much. As with spinning tackle, you will want to have a wire tippet guard, and you can get leaders with those already tied to (many tackle shops in Sweden sell something like this). You want your leader to have a breaking strength of at least 8 pounds, but it is wise to go higher if you know you will meet bigger fish (depends on where you fish).
d) You want a reel that can hold at least 100 yd of 20 pound test backing, and preferably one with a big diameter so that you can reel in more line faster. Pike don't often take off with your line like salmon do, but I'd be rather safe than sorry in case you get that one big pike that does it.
e) As That Brian Davies mentioned, you want long hemostats/pliers and gloves to handle the fish. A rubber landing net is also a good thing to use if you plan to release the fish (it is nicer on them than just hauling them into the boat). Since we are on this topic, you should try to keep the fish in the water and wet your hands before handling them if you plan to release them. Don't hold them through the gills upright like you see in some pictures, as that risks rupturing their internal organs and is a recipe for dead fish. Exception made to some trout creeks in northern Sweden where you are demanded to dispose of all pike you catch. There you should dispatch the fish humanely.
f) Cast your fly towards the bank/weeds, make an initial strip to straighten your line if you have some slack to it, wait for a while so that it sinks, and then retrieve it with fast short strips like it is a minnow swimming fast. One exception is when it is very cold and during spring when they are tired from mating. Then you should give slower motions to your fly. Otherwise, pike are really aggressive and will attack anything that looks like another fish. I have hooked pikes accidentally while I left my fly in the water and was texting or talking to someone.
Good luck fishing, and I hope that you get a fish like this one in this video.
Edit: I recently found this link with a lot more information on fly fishing for pike.