and are there other textiles that can work?
One option is of course polypropylene, it is hydrophobic (unlike most other materials used in clothing) and has a lower thermal conductivity than wool - this does not mean better insulation, but it is a safe bet it can perform fairly well over natural fibres and is fairly cheap.
You may see these as liners to prevent saturated socks from touching your feet by providing a hydrophobic buffer (although film of sweat does stay on the fibres even if not absorbed, such as with nylon blends) or as a bulkier option such as a boot sock.
I would recommend looking to this material as a possible alternative to wool, in terms of performance in cold environment over natural fibres. Nearly all natural fibres such as cotton, hemp, cellulose (bamboo/rayon etc.) perform substandard in the cold and very poorly in the wet. Some silk blends can retain insulation while wet but may end up costing more.