Title says it all really, if I were out practice shooting on a boss, or if I were hunting, how could I tell if I can reuse the arrows I've just shot?
While there are a variety of different arrows, there are some common signs you can look out for.
First of all are the fletchings. If they are supposed to be straight, check if they still are. Others have a bend or curve in them, if this is the case check if the curve is still correct. Also check to make sure they are fully attached to the arrow.
Second most common problem is the nock. Make sure it hasn't weakened and become loose.
Next is the shaft. Make sure it is still straight. You can either look down its length from the head (away from your eye) or spin it on your palm. The latter takes quite a bit of practice. For wooden arrows make sure there are no chips, scrapes or gouges out of the shaft. If there are it will have to be replaced.
Head / points. This is more of a concern on arrows where these can be changed. If you have such an arrow make sure they are well tightened, threaded correctly, and sit straight to the arrow. For anything with barbs make sure they are not bent.
Most commonly the only issue you will face shooting a boss is loss or damage of fletchings, and these can easily be replaced. Arrows are commonly made of aluminum, carbon fiber, or a mix of the two. Simple target shooting is unlikely to bend them. The only commonly used bow that uses wooden arrows is a longbow.
Hunting is different. If the animal moves, or you hit a bone, it can damage your arrows quite easily. I will add hunting with a bow is not a suggested idea unless you really know what you are doing. There are a lot more variables to take into account than hunting with a gun.
For a full day of shooting using twelve arrows, you might damage one, and only minor damage that you could repair yourself. They are made to withstand a lot of use. As an example mine cost £29 each. If I had to keep replacing them I would have no money left.