Hot soup mostly, it does depend on the individual diets of the climbers, not everybody eats the same thing, but most carry hot soup with them.
Despite the massive amounts of energy needed to summit Everest, the truth is most climbers don't eat much on summit day, and that's simply because they don't have an appetite due to the high elevation. Many climbers have to consciously force themselves to try to eat and drink at the upper camps of Everest.
On summit day you're in the death zone, which means it is literally impossible for your muscles to fully replenish themselves. That's why they call it the death zone, your body cannot survive because basic body functions like digestion begin to shut down. Basically, there's no such thing as rest up there, your body can't rest, if you sit down you just slow down the rate of fatigue a little, but you don't recover any strength. It's unreal the amount of energy they burn up their too, they will be advancing one step for every five breaths they take, travel no faster than 100m/hr (that's metres per hour) and they burn just as many calories as someone running a marathon.
Hydration is a huge challenge as well, your body actually requires ~5L of fluids a day at high elevation, if you don't drink at least that much, then your body starts taking it from wherever it can, like your intestines, which makes it even more difficult to digest food. Most of your fluids are lost just through breathing, this is compounded by using oxygen, because they have to make the oxygen extra dry to prevent your breather and fittings from freezing up solid.
So for the most part the answer is hot soup. It's easy on the stomach, it gives you nutrients as well as fluids, and it warms you up. You can also consume it without taking you mitts off. Frostbite is a big problem up there, and it's not entirely because it's super cold (-20°C to -30°C mostly) it largely because you blood is so thick like syrup from secondary polycythemia that you effectively have the circulation of a diabetic with too much sugar in their blood.