No one is allowed to just show up at base camp and expect to be able to advance to any of the other camps.
First of all, there is a lot of paperwork that must be completed before you're even granted a permit to climb Everest, which includes a letter of recommendation from a national climbing association. The permit to basecamp is only $50.00, but if you ...
Altitude acclimatization is not just a single change in your body but a long list of different things that are going on. There is a nice chart on p. 326 of House and Johnston, Training for the New Alpinism, which gives a list of the following adaptations (they label #6 as two items):
increased ventilation rate
increased heart rate and blood pressure
No - the studies show that aerobic fitness has no protective effect. This is from the Institute for Altitude Medicine:
MYTH - PHYSICAL FITNESS PROTECTS AGAINST ALTITUDE SICKNESS.
Physical fitness offers no protection from altitude illness. In fact, many young fit athletes drive themselves too hard at altitude prior to acclimatizing thinking they can push ...
I'll try and be brief but specific towards answering your question: What exactly happens to your body at high altitude?
Disclaimer: A lot of data is from Wiki Pages and definitions from Human Anatomy and Physiology Books.
Breathlessness and Hyperventilation:
Does it start with one panting for breathe?
Yes it does!
We all know that Atmospheric pressure ...
To answer your first question,"If the situation asks for it, should a mountaineer be donating blood at higher altitude?" I'm assuming you're referring to a life and death situation on the mountain where someone desperately needs an emergency transfusion to survive an accident, and whether or not it is safe to offer your blood. My answer would be yes, you ...
I am not sure why you want to do this, but I have noticed that in a group of people in cool (not cold) weather eg 5 C which is 41 F, those who live in places with a very cold winter (rural Ontario like me, Winnipeg) are not even zipping up their coats while those who live in year-round warm places (Texas) are shivering and complaining and borrowing gloves.
What they are doing is following the maxim "climb high, sleep low". Going too fast will cause altitude sickness.
Humans have a lower respiration rate while sleeping, which is why they can be okay at higher altitudes while awake and yet need to descend to sleep.
The accepted guideline is not to increase your sleeping altitude by more than 1000 ft (300m) ...
A reason could be, that your digestion works worse in altitude. Because your stomach is getting work to do when you drink (or even worse, when you eat), you could feel sick so generally your condition feels worse.
Nonetheless your body needs the water, it is imperative to be properly hydrated. So if you can't drink anymore (and if you can't eat anymore for ...
Living or spending time at higher altitudes will increase your performance via the number of red blood cells you have in your blood. Athletes do this to increase their performance (after they redescended that is), in which case we are speaking of Altitude Training.
The effect originates in the differences in partial pressure of gazes at different altitudes (...
For these kinds of issues I like to look at how militaries handle it, since they are heavily invested in optimizing personnel performance in a wide range of climates and conditions. Some anecdotes from looking into that in the past, I don't have a citation for now: it is more difficult to acclimate to cold than to warm temperatures, and people adapting from ...
This sounds to me like a bad idea because you don't want to go into the hike already a little dehydrated. My recommendation would be to go into the hike very well hydrated, and to drink a lot of fluids during the hike, and don't forget about electrolytes.
I guess one of the central concerns with AMS is that you can never know when it hits you. You can prepare, acclimatize and try to avoid all the stupid mistakes - but even under perfect conditions, and even if you have a successful history of climbing at altitude it can hit you any time.
From what you described I don't see any obvious mistakes. It sound like ...
I'm going to assume your question is geared towards high altitude (20,000+ ft) climbing. Haven't done any myself but this topic is covered at length in almost every book written regarding Everest and the other 25k peaks.
Is this style of complicated looking height progression done nowadays
A common mantra for high-altitude acclimatization is "...
Acclimatization isn't purely psychological; it is actually a physiologically different response based upon recent exposure and experience. Layering down over a period of time (days to weeks) could theoretically alter your biochemistry on a cellular level as you develop a different proportion of membrane proteins and salinity (see http://en.wikipedia.org/...
I have served in an Army that tried that, “water discipline” was used to try and make soldiers get used to using less water.
It failed miserably, people have died or got seriously hurt and there was no visible benefit and the habit was abounded
When one talks of adapting to an altitude, what also matters is how fast one is ascending. The critical part to note is that having a higher haemoglobin level does not mean one is better equipped at alititude.
Typically it's safe to climb around 300m per day.
Coming to the question of living at altitude and the possible advantages of acclimatisation as ...
Older people better tolerate high altitude. For that altitude you don't need to do any special trainings\preparation. It would be enough to do any sport activity like running swimming or bicycle. The more sports you do the more comfortable you will be during your hike.
The best research I can find is from The Institute of Altitude Medicine in the US.
Quoting studies on skiers visiting high resorts in Colorado:
AMS (Acute Mountain Sickness) can afflict any visitor sleeping higher than 6000 feet. In
Colorado, between 15 and 40% of visitors sleeping at 8000 ft or higher
get AMS, with the incidence the highest at the ...
As a speculation, you may have a ceiling of about 16,500 feet. This speculation is reinforced by your starting to feel stronger as you passed 16,500 on the way down. Was this the first time you climbed above 16,500?
My husband had an office mate -- very tough, fit guy -- who puked regularly at 13,000 feet, and felt awful. Finally he accepted his ceiling....
Bringing gear up when climbing high won't really affect the rate.
There is a possibility that a higher pressure system could increase the amount of oxygen, but true acclimatization takes long enough that it probably won't matter.
According to the Altitude Research Center
Women are more susceptible to acute mountain sickness but less so to
I'd typically go about it in two scenarios, not just the heat alone.
Hot + Humid, Typical Example: Coastal regions of India, Sri Lanka, Caribbean Islands.
Hot + Dry, Examples, Deserts.
In both the cases, the thing to keep an eye on is Sweating.
If weather is dry, hot and low humidity, you will stop sweating after a certain point, the core temperature is ...
The graph looks exactly like a bunch of graphs in House and Johnston, Training for the New Alpinism, pp. 334-337, except for the scale on the time axis. The ones in House and Johnston are for modern climbs that are not done in "siege style." They even have one for Nanga Parbat, which covers a time period of about 35 days, from 3700 m to the summit. It looks ...
Anecdotal evidence: my wife and I take periodic trips from a few hundred meters altitude to 3000-4000m (and sometimes over a pass at 4480m). We feel that going a little as one weekend per month provides a noticeable benefit. We've even camped in the same spot at ~3900m on a couple occasions and definitely slept better the second time.
According to the International Society for Mountain Medicine, in its article Normal Acclimitization:
Acclimatization is the process of the body adjusting to the decreased
availability of oxygen at high altitudes. It is a slow process, taking
place over a period of days to weeks. High altitude is defined as:
•High Altitude: 1500 - 3500 m (5000 ...
Research has established that humans adapt well to heat.
Adaption to cold is a more controversial topic, but according to this literature survey any benefit from cold training is small and unreliable, varying from individual to individual.
So I wouldn't bother making the attempt - focus on developing an effective clothing system instead.
This will depend a lot on the individual.
Some people may be able to acclimatize quickly, others will not. In parts of Western Canada the temperature is regularly +30°C in the Summer and -30°C in the winter, so the people here have to adapt to both extremes every year.
How effectively you adapt to the climate often depends on your upbringing. Your body ...