Questions related to anchors used for climbing sports, such as rock climbing
In climbing sports an anchor is a device comprised of several pieces of equipment which can safely and securely hold a climber to the wall in the event of a fall, during a rappel, or if they need to stop at a particular location to belay another climber from above or to make a camp.
An anchor often consists of various pieces of webbing, static rope, climbing slings, carabiners, fixed bolts, trad climbing gear, and natural features such as rocks, trees, or cracks. At many climbing locations permanent bolts are located at the top of routes in order to facilitate construction of anchors with minimal gear; in other locations the climber must be able to construct an anchor with only the gear they have brought with them.
Anchors must be carefully designed and built in order to function properly; their construction needs to consider the direction and force of a potential fall, as well as the possibility of one or more of there components failing. Various mnemonics have been created to help climbers understand whether an anchor is trustworthy, such as SERENE and ERNEST. These acryonyms focus on reminding the climber than an anchor should ideally be very strong, have built-in redundancies, anticipate potential failures.