In the Alps there is a dense network of huts mostly maintained by the local alpine clubs. There are also some private huts mostly owned by mountain guide associations.
Most of the huts are closing down towards the end of September but many have winter rooms or small bivy huts that are accessible for the whole year. Especially Italy has a lot of bivy huts ...
The call would be routed to the international COSPAS-SARSAT network.
Here are the Beacon Regulations Handbooks for each country: http://www.cospas-sarsat.int/en/documents-pro/beacon-regulations-handbook
They have an INCOMPLETE and somewhat contradictory summary of countries: http://www.cospas-sarsat.int/en/beacon-ownership/national-beacon-regulations-for-...
Bit late to the party, but:
Germany, it's prohibited to sleep in the great outdoors with a tent.
For Germany, that is not true in the generality the claim has.
Wild zelten is not allowed - but the wild means: without permission. As long as you have the permission, camping/putting up a tent is totally fine. What is true is that one would often consider ...
Swiss Alpine Club (SAC-CAS) has a colletion of guide books however only few are available in English.
SAC also has Tour Portal available in English with almost 1800 tours categorized by type (hiking, climbing, ski touring, via ferrata) and difficulty.
I personally find it to be the best resource about trails and tours in Switzerland.