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52

Amundsen's team used a meter on their sledges to get close (dead reckoning) and then sextants to confirm the position. Using Amundsen's diary, Roland Huntford (in The Amundsen Photographs) describes the photo as "Shooting the sun at the South Geographical Pole. Amundsen (left) is holding a sextant. Helmer Hanssen (right) is bending over the artificial ...


52

I'll expand a bit on how one would use a sextant to locate the north or south pole. The basic arrangement needs a horizontal reflective plane, for which Amundsen used a pool of mercury. A precisely weighted mirror could work also, but a pool of mercury is more robust and doesn't go out of calibration. Sextant measures the angular distance between two ...


14

John Muir is said to have traveled for weeks in the back country, but he never took any food with him, [...] Not true. There is a nice article here by John Huber about what Muir ate while on trips. Mainly bread. He dried it so that it wouldn't get moldy. He also often brought tea and sugar with him. It's true that he never brought a gun and didn't hunt. It ...


13

Wetting the sails down helps hold more wind by closing the gaps and making the sails stand flatter. Now the sails had to be kept wet, for a wet sail holds more of the wind than a dry one. Water had to be hoisted up from the sea to the towering height of Constitution's yards and spilled down the sails. Even in the humidity that prevailed — the humidity ...


12

For a more data driven approach, here's a google trends graph for the popularity of searches for "climbing gym", "indoor climbing", "climbing center", "climbing centre", and "climbing wall": google trends Nothing too illuminating, outside of an interesting biannual cycle (peaking in the middle of the winter and the middle of the summer). Interestingly, ...


10

This can be answered pretty precisely. They used the so called "Gokstad backpack". http://wychwood.wikidot.com/kit-bags The Gokstad 'backpack:' this is an oval cross-sectioned tube of leather or woven birch bark, attached to a thin wooden base and with a wooden lid and shoulder straps attached. More details may be found on this website ...


9

The topics of navigation and cartography are two sides of the same coin, and there are entire books written about each. It is interesting to study the history of cartography because it very graphically shows the corresponding improvements in navigation over time. In order to make an accurate map, you need to know first where you are making your ...


9

Yes, that looks like arrow heads I've found in that general area too. Note that it may be a unfinished or discarded piece. There is clear flaking and shaping. It would be very very unlikely for this to have happened by natural causes.


9

I'd suppose, that the glass horizon is the one that uses a well-polished glass as a reflective surface. The quote from the answer you've mentioned: The basic arrangement needs a horizontal reflective plane, for which Amundsen used a pool of mercury. A precisely weighted mirror could work also, but a pool of mercury is more robust and doesn't go out of ...


8

These types of carabiners are designed to be used with a Munter Hitch. The Munter Hitch was created by a Swiss mountain guide named Werner Munter who called it, Halbmastwurfsicherung, meaning half clove hitch belay. Source The abbreviation for Halbmastwurfsicherung is HMS and that is why the large/pear shaped carabiners are called HMS carabiners.


7

TLDR: No, they were found all over North America before the Europeans arrived and are being reintroduced into the Appalachian mountains. I can see them preferring the plains instead of mountains in the absence of hunting pressure, but I haven't found any evidence that they were absent from the mountains. Also, herds of elk are much easier to spot in open ...


7

Mt. Whymper in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, was first ascended by a party led by Edward Whymper in 1901. He also got first ascent at the beautiful Stanley Peak, which is named after the same Stanley as the Stanley Cup, and located just across the highway from Mt. Whymper.


7

Below is the list that I found by googling on "chuck wilts" 1956 tahquitz yds. After the name of each route is the consensus rating on mountainproject.com. Each climb is hyperlinked to a description on mountainproject. 5.0 - The trough, FA 1936 (.4) 5.1 - Fingertip traverse, FA 1936 (.4) 5.2 - Frightful variation of the trough, FA 1944 (.2) 5.3 - East ...


7

You should always wear a helmet when climbing outdoors due to the risk of rockfall. The only downside to wearing a helmet is that it is slightly less comfortable than climbing without one, but this is a small price to pay for potentially saving your life or that of your climbing partner. I always wear one outside and would not let anyone who was not ...


7

Take a time-lapse photo of the sky directly overhead at night. The moving stars will form circles in your photo, and if the center of the circles is directly overhead, you are there.


6

As far as I know, the "change of paradigm" that led to the birth of sport climbing happened between the 70s and the 80s, and it happened separately in Europe and in the United States. From the early 1900s to the 50s, rock climbing was mostly seen as a "tool" necessary to reach the summit of a mountain. There was no real distinction between "aid climbing" ...


6

For your specific questions, The rock type is sandstone. This type of rock formation is called a Hoodoo and they happen when a harder rock type or layer is ontop of a weaker layer. The weaker layer erodes away faster, leaving the cap on top. It was naturally formed. It seems like it only got on the news after it was destroyed. I ran multiple Google searches ...


6

Great question! In the UK, in many ways the cradle of mountaineering as a sport, it was common to wear traditional shepherds footwear known variously as shepherds boots, fell boots or hill boots depending on your location. We don't need to speculate about how these boots performed, because you can still buy them today. The bootmakers William Lennon of ...


6

It looks like the first sparrows where brought over in 1851, to control insects, and because they would have been familiar to people coming from Europe. When Europeans first arrived in the Americas, there were Native American cities, but none of the species Europeans had come to expect in cities: no pigeons, no sparrows, not even any Norway rats. Even ...


6

Wells are covered to keep the water clean, not to keep it dry. A well bucket rope is only going to be as long as needed, one end is going to get wet several times a day. Even in single person home well, you are probably collecting water for the home morning and evening, as well as watering the animals during the day. Depending on how often water is taken ...


5

From what I was able to find, while there were climbing halls from as early as 1974**, indoor climbing really took off after plastic bolt-on climbing holds were started to be made in the late 80s. Artifial movable holds meant that climbing gyms could change routes easier and more frequently. So yes, it probably was in the 90s when climbing gyms started to ...


5

In the US prior to about 1900, there was little control over logging. Around 1900 the practice of Reforestation began gaining tracktion, with more oversight and controls. Forest that have never been logged are called "Old Growth" or "Virgin" forests. Wikipedia has a list of US Old Growth Forests these will have never been logged (I am going to ignore ...


5

I've eaten both. They really don't have anything in common besides containing a lot of sugar and peppermint flavoring. There may be several variants of mint cake now, but the stuff I was eating in the 70s and that Edmund Hillary was eating on Everest was literally a block of sugar flavored with peppermint oil. There was no chocolate coating, and it was hard ...


5

A lighthouse is one of the buildings in a light station and has the actual signaling light while light station refers to all of the buildings. A light station comprises the lighthouse tower and all outbuildings, such as the keeper's living quarters, fuel house, boathouse, and fog-signaling building. The Lighthouse itself consists of a tower structure ...


4

I found a site that has a number of old climbing photographs from around that time and I think is your best option (that I could find). Historical Rock Climbing Images 1890s - 1930s There is also the Yorkshire Ramblers Journal which goes back all the way to 1899 and some of the articles have pictures. From that one call pull the names of the photographers ...


4

If you are talking about a wooden bucket, you'd want to keep it moist all the time. It will crack and leak when drying thoroughly. Incidentally, this will not be a problem, as it will go into the well several times per day.


4

@JamesJenkins answer is pretty good. I'll add two points based on my experience as a forester. I think the 2nd point especially will help you find the info you're looking for, which is, TLDR: Forest stand maps can be very useful for planning woodland activities, serving as a great clue about where you'll find different types of forest structures and dynamics....


4

According to this article on Wikipedia The earliest artificial climbing walls were typically small concrete faces with protrusions made of medium-sized rocks for hand holds. Schurman Rock in Seattle, WA is believed to be the first artificial climbing structure in the United States, constructed in 1939. The modern artificial climbing wall began in the ...


4

John Muir traveled much, but it would be foolhardy to follow his pattern of starving while tramping unless there was a bigger reason for it. He would go days without any food, or possibly on a handful of crackers. Minimalism is what he lived, but there are healthier ways to do it now that didn't exist for him. Based off his writings, he would likely carry ...


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