128

When travelling on extremely remote roads, you need to prepare for the worst. This is even more true if you are travelling in a climate where the weather might kill you within days, such as in extreme cold. I've had a car break down once at -35°C. That road in Northern Sweden wasn't as remote as the one in Siberia you describe, as it still had maybe two ...


102

There are several reasons why I think rationing is useful. Morale - If you eat all your food on the first day you won't have anything to look forward to. If you eat a little bit twice a day you can look forward to your next morsel instead of regretting eating all your food. Meals become a break in the monotony and something pleasant you know will be coming. ...


64

Settlements tend to be near water like rivers, lakes or oceans and the larger the body of water, the more likely there are people. A small stream is likely to join another at some point. This is why going downstream (or merely going down if there is no stream) is the safest bet if there are no other clues. Even if you're not actually on a mountain, it's more ...


58

The calories to melt even frozen water are pretty small, and the water gained is certainly greater than that used to aid the use of those calories. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calorie So 1 calorie = 1 degree celcius (roughly with minor variation). Okay easy. Except it takes 80 times that to melt it initially. Screw snow, let's figure on ice cubes. 1 ...


52

How I've practiced is I hold my left hand palm out, and I create a "V" between my ring and middle fingers with the plane or person between my fingers. I then hold the mirror by my face and shine the mirror between my fingers. You should see the light on your hand to confirm you are shining in the right direction.


52

Aside from the previously mentioned micronutrients, your body doesn’t really store protein in any significant way, so in order to ‘repair’ your body you need a relatively constant stream of protein (or rather, amino-acids). Nothing bad happens if you fast for a short while, but it does mean you will obtain amino acids from breaking down your own muscle which ...


48

First, if you go somewhere in a car, take along the clothes necessary to be outside for an extended period. 406 MHz PLB (Personal Locator Beacon) All the tragedies have one thing in common: they did not have one of these and/or did not activate it. This is the gold-standard, same as aircraft ELTs and ship EPIRBs and works worldwide on the COSPAS-SARSAT ...


47

All the advice I've seen emphasises melting snow before consuming to avoid lowering your core body temperature (rather than, specifically, risking dehydration). If possible, melt the snow using a stove, or alternatively, pack the snow into a waterproof container and keep it in a pocket or your sleeping bag until it melts. News stories such as this one, ...


47

I suggest using both the car and the tent together. A car will lose heat fastest through the windows, so use the tent to cover them (and the top). The windows are a thin single layer of glass, while the panels trap a layer of air between the metal outer and a lining that is a better insulator than glass. The panels also block radiative heat loss from the ...


44

Obviously, what you decide to pack depends on your trip and the environment, but these are the staples I always bring along: Navigation: You always need to be able to figure out where you are and which way you need to head to get out. In my opinion, a map without topography isn't a map (unless you're on very flat land). GPS with extra batteries Local trail ...


44

The conclusion is not correct. Some bacteria produce toxins which are not destroyed by heat, for example Staphylococcus. See this link for more information. Note that this is not strictly an outdoors issue. Even at home, you should not keep fresh meat in your fridge too long before cooking it, as it gives time for bacteria to produce toxins. The ...


44

Well, I'm from Russia, and I heard that in the most desperate situation like this you can burn your car's tires. The tires are made of oil, so they burn well. Using fire from tires you can use other car parts that burn well, like a seat. This will allow you to last at least for a day and if you're driving a big car, like a semi, you can last several days. ...


43

If you look at the current time, and imagine yourself in the center a big analog watch, just place your shadow on the location of the hour's hand. Then imagine the location of the 12 o'clock hand, and exactly in the middle of the angle between those two hands is the north. Be sure to ignore daylight saving time (As the time your hand watch is showing ...


41

Here is an article that quantifies the heat loss effects of cotton, polyester and polypropylene: Rossi et al., Dry and Wet Heat Transfer Through Clothing Dependent on the Clothing Properties Under Cold Conditions, International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) 2008, Vol. 14, No. 1, 69–76. Experimental Summary Here is a rough summary of ...


40

In many parts of life, you have to play the percentages. The likelihood is higher that going downstream will lead you to a trailhead or some other sign of civilization than it is for going upstream. As for the comment that ....as long as you stay on the road, you will find civilization. This may be true of a road, but it is often not true of a trail. ...


38

The EPA recommends boiling for one minute for most people, and three minutes for anyone above one mile in elevation. reference - http://water.epa.gov/drink/emerprep/emergencydisinfection.cfm#method That is what I have always done when backpacking. I don't boil for 10-20 minutes because it will kill my fuel supply and waste too much of the water. If I were ...


38

This article (*) gives a good summary of the efficiency of boiling as a method for making water safe for consumption. In particular, Table 2 provides a summary of the temperature and time required to kill various micro-organisms. A distinction should be drawn between killing all pathogens and making water safe to drink. Sterilisation of water (killing all ...


37

You can place an empty cup in the middle of a lightly filled bucket of sea water. You then place a plastic bag over the bucket, with a stone in the middle so it has a dip in it over the cup. The sea water evaporates, reforms on the plastic bag (without any salt in it) and then drips into the cup. Slow but far better than drinking sea water.


36

There are different types of being stranded; there's "lost the trail an hour in" stranded, "lost the trail twenty miles in" stranded, and "broke a leg" stranded, just to name a few. Considering your question Multi-day Hiking -- Therefore I assume you have standard hiking gear and are not asking for that. Also assuming that you're not going to be nearby a ...


36

First, you won't need to make this observation if you routinely drink when you stop to rest, and if you eat something at least slightly salty whenever you snack (if your snacks include jerky or salted nuts you're more than covered.) Second, pay attention to your thirst. Many of us ignore our bodies for hours at a time - postponing bodily functions during a ...


35

There are many, many ways to make a fire. Some require more skill, while others depend on carefully prepared equipment. The closest thing to "rubbing two sticks together" is the hand-drill. You will need a fireboard (a small cedar board is good) and a thin, straight stick. A knife is good, too. This takes a lot of practice. Hand callouses help. YouTube has ...


35

Assuming you don't have a genitourinary tract infection, fresh urine should be sterile, the problem is that it is a waste product which, apart from making it not taste very nice, means that consuming it will increase the concentration of waste in your body which will require an increased volume of water to absorb and subsequently excrete, resulting in you ...


35

Let's do some back-of-the-envelope calculations. The specific heat of water is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a particular amount of water by 1 degree C. This is 4.186 joules/gram °C (reference). To raise the temperature of 1 L of water (1000 g) by 80 degrees C (to boiling from room temperature), would be 4.186 * 1000 * 80 = 334,...


34

There seems to be a fixation with North in navigation. Step back to the basic purpose, why do we navigate? We navigate to get to somewhere or to find our way back. Knowing north is just one method of doing such. So predicating navigation on knowing which way is north is unnecessary. North isn't the goal, it's a reference for finding what you really want....


34

It is likely caused by iron in the pump or pipes. According to the Illinois Department of Public Health: Iron is mainly present in water in two forms: either the soluble ferrous iron or the insoluble ferric iron. Water containing ferrous iron is clear and colorless because the iron is completely dissolved. When exposed to air in the pressure tank or ...


34

Hot soup mostly, it does depend on the individual diets of the climbers, not everybody eats the same thing, but most carry hot soup with them. Despite the massive amounts of energy needed to summit Everest, the truth is most climbers don't eat much on summit day, and that's simply because they don't have an appetite due to the high elevation. Many climbers ...


34

Dehydration will very quickly reduce your ability to undertake the activities required to survive and so finding and conserving water should be a very high priority in any survival situation. Clearly there are potential dangers associated with drinking contaminated water but these need to be weighed against the dangers of dehydration. As with most survival ...


34

Salt dissolves in water so will pass though a normal filter or cloth. You can try that with a coffee filter at home. So there's definitely an error in the article. A still (i.e. distillation apparatus, whether solar or fire-heated) is the only easily improvised way to desalinate water, but the article I read said he caught and ate fish - that will provide ...


32

If there's a stick around and enough sunlight, I've found the stick method surprisingly accurate: Find a straight stick, around 2 feet long (length isn't that important) and plant it straight in the ground. Mark the end of the stick's shadow, perhaps with another short stick. Wait for about 15 minutes then repeat step 2. Draw a line between the two ends you ...


31

TL;DR - First try to identify if the wire is supposed to carry electricity (insulators on posts/wire goes to an electrical box/posted warning signs/ect...). There's really not much you can do to check the wire for current without a device aside from listening to it, touching it (potentially dangerous), or throwing something onto it that might react to a ...


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