30

Even though the question describes a hypothetical and unlikely situation I think it has some merits as it is somewhat relevant for SCUBA diving also: it describes an emergency uncontrolled SCUBA ascent (swimming or buoyant). Note that the answer below assumes an absolute emergency only that requires an immediate no-air ascent. As in, you either reach the ...


24

Theoretically, it might be possible to survive on fish, rainwater and desalinated seawater. In one 1930 experiment, two men survived for a year eating exclusively meat without experiencing any health issues. This indirectly suggests that meat (and therefore possibly also fish) contain all the essential nutrients, but this was a small and relatively short ...


23

As usual, skills are the lightest and most effective thing one can carry. From how to bushcraft useful things from natural materials, to clever ways to satisfy needs like signaling or navigation, to keeping a healthy state of mind. Nonetheless, some useful items greatly increase chance of success / reduce chance of suffering. The less skills, the more ...


23

First and foremost: Don't Panic At 30m, you'll be fine if you can free yourself within about 20 minutes and know what you're doing. That being said, there is a good chance you won't know your exact depth, so the sooner the better is going to be your guiding principle. (At 40m, your time drops to 8 minutes. At 20m, you have 45 minutes.) PADI and NAUI both ...


22

Second Edit: Thanks for all the upvotes. I just want to clarify one thing: I don't think I've done a good job in answering the OP's question. I think cr0's answer is much better for winter hiking. This little kit that I've put together is my 3-season emergency kit. Consider it the start of an emergency kit for the winter. [Also, since I have a fair ...


20

Summary: eat the rabbit. Every single bit of it. With 1 rabbit per day, you are in starvation while probably not exceeding your normal capacity for daily protein digestion, though it may very well exceed the protein digestion capacity if you are in total starvation (also without protein) for a prolonged amount of time. In any case, you should stretch it ...


17

I have spent significant time in the backcountry in the winter. Last year I did an early season through hike of the Continental Divide Trail, spending months living in the snow. Below is a list of some items I'd recommend bringing if you're going on a casual hike in the winter. You should not bring all of these at once. Consider the conditions, your ...


17

You can, of course, use the skin for some (minimal) clothing - furs are nice and warm. You could also use the animal as bait (living or dead) to attract larger animals (bigger skins) or for fishing. You could also boil the meat and skin to extract the fat components, which then could be consumed in a broth/soup. Marrow from the bones is very nutritious, ...


15

I think that list is talking about immediate priorities, that is, what you must focus on first to stay alive in a survival situation, not whether food is necessary. From Backcountry Chronicles, the article Wilderness Survival Rules of 3 – Air, Shelter, Water and Food lists four of the rules like this Survival Rule of 3 and Survival Priorities For ...


14

... can someone gather/hunt/farm all of the nutrients required to be healthy whilst never having to land again? Nutrients yes, healthy not likely. A 1000 days is a grueling journey. Reid Stowe, whom used to have a website called (Beyond) 1000 Days at Sea: The Mars Ocean Odyssey, lived at sea (without contact with land) for 1,152 days (equals 3 Years, 1 ...


12

Assuming you have no way of safely and reliably leaving the cave to get help, your first priority is not to become a casualty yourself as well. Even if the Guide needs urgent medical attention, it would take an appreciable amount of time for the first members of the cave rescue team to arrive on site and then to locate you and the Guide in the cave, so ...


11

Because swimming takes energy that your body could be using for heat and instead uses it for movement. The more energy you use in cold water, the more your body cools off. If you cannot climb out of the water, conserve body heat by remaining as still as possible and reducing the amount of your body exposed to the water. Protect your critical heat loss ...


10

First: buddies. Solo activities are inherently riskier. Not that's out of the way, what kit is practical? Extra insulation and extra wind/waterproofing. This may be just one item, but it's more likely to be a foil blanket, extra mid layer, and survival bag. If you stop moving, you stop generating as much heat, so you need insulation. The extra mid layer, ...


10

In my experience, it comes down to 4 things. Wilderness First Responder Certification: The first course is 80 hours and then you need to recertify after 2 years. There are other certifications such as a Wilderness EMT but this is pretty much the standard. Organization specific instructor course: When you become an instructor for an organization you usually ...


9

Do they work? Yes...but you need to know why... The Key, Like Most Things, Is Understanding How They Work The material on “space” blankets was actually developed by NASA for the purpose of use in space to protect astronauts from solar heat, and they’re very good at it. In a wilderness setting, they do have limitations with must be mitigated though. They ...


9

Escaping a sunken ship or submarine has some similarities to an emergency ascent in the course of SCUBA diving, but it's not identical to it. First the differences: You don't have fins. Without fins, you cannot swim as fast and as efficiently. Fins allow you to limit oxygen consumption by using efficiency-optimized leg muscles. Swimming with arms and feet ...


8

Not as real as the danger of death by exposure and hypothermia while outside the igloo. Your risk of asphyxiation in a snow shelter depends largely on its size, and the number of people inside it. People have been living in igloos for hundreds if not thousands of years, and not just for one night or two at a time, but as permanent dwellings also. Igloos ...


8

Even the “regular” paracord would be set ablaze if you put it close to a fire / heat source :) It’s a nylon / polyester after all… In my opinion, such gimmick paracords are not more dangerous than a normal one. Unless that tinder is a strand of black powder fuse :) UPDATE I reckon that extra strand is some kind of waxed cotton or something. If that is the ...


8

TL;DR: Death trap? No. Should you be cautious? At least as cautious as you would be with normal tinder. Think of it this way: Pile of loose jute twine, seem dangerous? No. People who use it for arts & crafts probably don't even realize its fire potential. Pile of loose paracord. Dangerous? No. Tinder can sit out without worry. Paracord can sit out ...


8

When you say "trapped" I presume you mean he cannot find his way out, as opposed to being trapped by rock fall or something blocking his exit such as flooding? The only weather-related clues could be when reaching to very near an entrance where the temperature can change. Caves tend to be at a fairly constant temperature (around the average for the location)...


7

There are some good answers here from some people with solid experience in mountains in the winter. However, these answers seem to slant extremely heavy on gear. Sometimes it's reasonable to do a day hike in winter in the mountains in a lightweight style, but you do want to be carrying the crucial things in your lightweight kit. The first thing to do is to ...


7

is there any evidence to suggest that de-prioritizing food increases survival Anyone who has ever prioritized food and died of any of the other issues would be evidence that de-prioritizing food would have increased survival. If someone spends a couple days setting traps, snares, and fishing lines only to realize they still don't know how to get fresh ...


7

This sounds to me like a bad idea because you don't want to go into the hike already a little dehydrated. My recommendation would be to go into the hike very well hydrated, and to drink a lot of fluids during the hike, and don't forget about electrolytes.


6

The safest concept is to always plan for the worst case. Of course, best practice varies according to context. Whether you're going solo or in a group, the equipment will change. Same goes for the different seasons. But generally, plan for slightly more than what you expect; i.e. if you're going on a day-trip, carry at least enough to overnight outside. In ...


6

From how it sounds, the river is too deep to walk through. I strongly advise against trying to swim through it in winter - if you are not well trained, well equipped and know the river very well, this is very likely deadly. Also, I advise against using some makeshift equipment or a blow-up raft. The river will likely become deadly after an earthquake strong ...


6

The danger is not only suffocation due to lack of oxygen, but also poisoning due to too much carbon dioxide in the air. Normal air has 21% oxygen; humans will safely survive down to ~15%. Maybe 10% oxygen is barely survivable for a few hours. Mountaineers might have an advantage here, they regularly survive Everest, which has ⅓ of the oxygen at sea level ...


6

Although I checked your link, I am not sure how exactly you would personally use a salt lick (based on the images from the mineral lick wiki article). There might be certain signs that can give away a salty environment: plants that thrive in a such a place, dried edges of water streams/ponds where the salt becomes visible (the ground is covered with a thin ...


6

I have served in an Army that tried that, “water discipline” was used to try and make soldiers get used to using less water. It failed miserably, people have died or got seriously hurt and there was no visible benefit and the habit was abounded


5

Yes, they do. Their task is to reflect as much of the heat radiation of your body back to it, while also inhibiting heat convection and conduction as good as possible without becoming bulky. They are great at this. However, how helpful they are for you depends on your concrete situation. Short term treatment of mild hypothermia or hypothermia risk This ...


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