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1

Decide yourself. The adequate minimum is 1-2 minutes (100C water at the sea level). Mind the altitude. To kill bacteria you need a combination of temperature and time. At some altitudes, without pressurizer, you just can't kill some resilient strains in a reasonable time (low boiling temperature). Use other disinfection methods in addition. The maximum ...


1

The other answers compare the situation to those where a SCUBA diver has to ascend immediately due to gear malfunction. Since you specifically ask about escaping from a sunken ship/submarine, I wanted to point to references explicitly stating that the same techniques are (or were) used for submarine escape. An article in the Journal of Military and Veterans ...


9

Escaping a sunken ship or submarine has some similarities to an emergency ascent in the course of SCUBA diving, but it's not identical to it. First the differences: You don't have fins. Without fins, you cannot swim as fast and as efficiently. Fins allow you to limit oxygen consumption by using efficiency-optimized leg muscles. Swimming with arms and feet ...


23

First and foremost: Don't Panic At 30m, you'll be fine if you can free yourself within about 20 minutes and know what you're doing. That being said, there is a good chance you won't know your exact depth, so the sooner the better is going to be your guiding principle. (At 40m, your time drops to 8 minutes. At 20m, you have 45 minutes.) PADI and NAUI both ...


30

Even though the question describes a hypothetical and unlikely situation I think it has some merits as it is somewhat relevant for SCUBA diving also: it describes an emergency uncontrolled SCUBA ascent (swimming or buoyant). Note that the answer below assumes an absolute emergency only that requires an immediate no-air ascent. As in, you either reach the ...


1

Summary: Heat adaptation (i.e. being able to do physical excercise in the heat) has a number of mechanisms, but among them the "water-related" mechanisms rely on having and needing, i.e. using more water. Heat adaptation increases the body's total water volume, so in that sense it improves water retention. Still, this can only be achieved by drinking more ...


5

Caves breathe. As the outside pressure increases or decreases the air inside a cave has to equalize. The most common cause is a pressure change is when the the outside temp changes due to the sun rising or setting. A front will also affect this. The larger the cave, the more air will go in & out. The air will feel like a wind. This is more noticeable ...


2

Water preparation on desert hiking? It is almost impossible to training the body for hacking or trekking in the desert, especially if one is not use to it. Heat acclimatization seems to be a much more beneficial way to prepare for the desert than what you are speculating would a good way to prepare: ”Lowering the water intake a few days before the hike a ...


-2

Radiator Water If you live in a hot climate, as many (but not all) deserts are, then you might not have any antifreeze in the radiator. I live in an area where it gets well below freezing in the winter, so antifreeze is used then obviously. However, I have used straight water in the warmer months and I have heard of people in warmer areas using straight ...


3

I have heard that if you drink a lot of water as a habit, the body doesn't do much retention. That just means that your body will not retain excessive water. Therefore, if you are preparing for a hiking in the desert where not much water will be available, is lowering the water intake a few days before the hike a better approach to deal with the ...


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