Very simply, the drier the wood, the more efficiently it burns, and the easier it lights.
A lean-to on the downwind side of the house is very common as a long-term wood store (there's generally a prevailing wind direction; this is often, but not always, the same as the direction the wind blows most often when it rains).
Bringing wood into the house for a few hours or days before burning does little to dry the bulk though it helps dry the surface and make it easier to light. So indoor storage is more important for kindling (thin sticks used in getting a fire started). Tinder (easily ignited material used in starting a fire, such as newspaper or dried grass) must be completely dry. Once a fire is established it can burn quite wet wood, but this wastes a lot of heat in the form of steam out of the chimney; the lower combustion temperature also means more smoke, which is a further sign of inefficient burning.
One good reason for keeping a day or so's supply in the house is to reduce the effort and time taken bringing it in, while letting less cold air in. So taking a log basket to the wood shed each day and bringing it back in full could be part of the morning routine. Chopping may be required at this stage. The first wood used to get the fire going again in the morning would probably be kept in the house overnight as it needs to be dry; this might be the last few pieces in the log basket before fetching more.