I'd be happy to see someone else contradict me, but I think the answer is basically no. The scenic, high-elevation mountain areas of the western US are uninhabited wilderness lands that are protected as national parks. The landscape is nothing like the Alps, where you have shepherds, huts, trams, cows, villages, farms, big towns like Chamonix, and so on.
An area that I'm specifically familiar with is the Sierra. The entire high-elevation portion of this range is national parks, extending a couple of hundred miles from north to south. There is only one road across from east to west, and it's at the north end of the range. There are a few developed areas such as Red's Meadows and Vermillion Valley Resort, but these are few and far between.
The closest thing I can think of to what you're talking about would be hiking the northern half of the John Muir Trail, starting from Yosemite Valley and exiting at someplace like Vermillion Valley Resort. The distance is roughly 100 miles. However, there is no way to do this and have lodging every night. Most people would do it as a backpacking trip and take about a week. You would need to carry your food, sleeping bags, etc. You would have a couple of opportunities to resupply along the way.
It's possible that there is something like this in the Rockies. I'm not familiar with that area.